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Britain Pond to Bytown, Canada
BRITAIN POND, a hamlet in Kings co., P.E.I., 25
miles from Charlottetown.
BRITANNIA, a post village in Peel Co., Ont., 6 miles from Brampton.
BRITANNIA, a station on the C. C. R., in Carleton co., Ont., 6 miles
from Ottawa. It has a telegraph office.
BRITANNIA MILLS, a post village in Bagot co., Que., on the G. T. R.,
42 miles from Montreal. It has a telegraph office. Pop. 90.
BRITONVILLE, a post office in Argenteuil co., Que., 22 miles from
BRITISH AMERICA comprises, with the exception of Alaska, the whole
of North America, N. of parallel of 49° together with some irregular
portions, including New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, stretching south
to lat. 43° 30' N., and the triangular portion of which, Quebec and
Ontario, form the base, the apex extending S to lat 41° 56 N. This
vast territory is bounded E. by the Atlantic, Davis' Strait and
Baffin's Bay. N by the Arctic Ocean, N.W. by Alaska, W. by the
Pacific and S. by the United States. It comprehends the provinces of
Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, including the Island of
Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island. Newfoundland. Manitoba, British
Columbia, and the North West Territories. Generally speaking British
America is a level country. With the exception of the Rooky
Mountains, on the W., it has but few elevations, and these are for
the most part of inconsiderable height. The coast has numerous
indentations, the most remarkable of which, on the E., are the Gulf
of St. Lawrence and Hudson's Bay. The latter, communicating with the
Atlantic through Hudson's and Frobisher's Straits, and with the
Arctic Ocean by means is of Fox Channel, Gulf of Boothia, Prince
Regent's, and other inlets, penetrates to near the centre of the
continent, forming one of the most extensive inland seas on the
globe. The surface of the country is extremely diversified with
rivers and lakes. The St. Lawrence, a river of immense volume, over
2000 miles in length, forms the outlet of the great Canadian lakes.
The Saskatchewan, rising in the Rocky Mountains, traverses 18° a of
lon., or a distance of at least 900 miles, and falls into the great
Lake Winnipeg, in 53° N. lat. This lake is connected with Hudson's
Bay by the Nelson or Port Nelson River, about 500 miles in length.
Lake Athabaska, situated about lat. 53° N., and lon. 110° W.
receives, among others, the Peace River and the Athabaska, a large
stream, rising in the Rocky Mountains, near the source of the
Columbia. The Mackenzie, entering the Arctic Ocean, is one of the
largest rivers on the globe. It flows through about 16° of lat. E.
of the Mackenzie, and flowing into the Arctic Ocean, are the
Coppermine and Fish rivers. The basin of the Winnipeg may be
considered as a continuation of that of the St. Lawrence, or as a
portion of one high plateau divided into two parts. There can be but
little doubt that a very great, if not the greater part of the vast
region included under the name of British America, is doomed to
everlasting sterility, on account of the severity of the climate.
The most northern station in which vegetation has been discovered is
Melville Island, 74° 50' N. lat., where the mean annual temperature
is from 1 to 2 degrees below zero, and that of July, about 42°. The
species that exist here consist chiefly of saxifrages, grasses,
cruciform plants, mosses and lichens; not a tree or even a bush is
able to rear its head; nor, indeed, is there a single plant or woody
structure except a little willow (Salix artica) which rises six
inches high. It is in these latitudes that the red snow plant, (Protoccocus
nivulis) that most simple of cryptogamic vegetables, exists in all
its beauty. As we advance south-ward, vast forests of spruce firs (Abies
alba and nigra) among which grow the reindeer moss and other
lichens, over-spread the land. To those are added different kinds of
wild currants and berries, and a variety of papilionaceous plants,
which abound in the open plains. With these are combined, as we
continue to advance, the majestic poplars of Canada, (Populus
hudsonica, and others), birches, (Betula papyracea and populifolid))
and many sorts of oaks and ashes, together with butternuts (Juglans
Cenerea) and hickories (Carya alba and amara.) The animals hunted
for food are deer, of four different kinds, buffaloes, rabbits, and
porcupines. Wild fowl are also numerous, especially grouse, wild
geese and ducks. The principal objects of traffic, especially in the
most northern parts, are the skins of fur-clad animals, of which
there are here a great variety. The chief tribes inhabiting the
Northern regions are the Chippewas, the Assiniboins, the Crees, the
Slave Indians, and the Esquimaux. Of all these tribes the Crees have
the best character, being active, honest and hospitable, kind to
their women, aid fondly attached to their children. For an account
of that portion of British America under cultivation see Canada,
BRITISH COLUMBIA, formerly NEW CALEDONIA, a province of the Dominion
of Canada, bounded on the N. by the 60th parallel of latitude; E. by
the main chain of the Rocky Mountains; S. by the United States; and
W. by Alaska, the Pacific Ocean and Queen Charlotte's Sound. Length
764 miles; breadth about 400 miles. Area 350,000 square miles. The
coast line is deeply indented. The northern part of the colony is
diversified with mountain, lake and river; is of extraordinary
fertility, producing alt Canadian cereals and vegetables, and fruits
in larger measure than any part of even Ontario, and with a mining
region (Omineca) at the head waters of the Peace, Skeena, and Fraser
Rivers, which, though very imperfectly explored, (owing to their
inaccessibility to general travel) gives indications of being very
rich in gold and silver. The southern and middle part includes the
rich gold valley of Fraser River, and is well adapted for pasturage,
and also, with irrigation, for agriculture; some parts, however,
such as the Chilcotin plains, and the great and beautiful valley of
the Okanagon, require no artificial irrigation, nor does any part of
the seaboard. Throughout the whole extent of the province there is
an abundance of forest land, the timber on which is of the most
valuable description. One kind especially, the Douglas pine yields
spars from 90 to 100 feet in length, and from 20 to 24 inches in
diameter. The tree is very often from 150 to 300 feet in length,
without knots or branches, and the diameter varies from six to ten
feet, and in quality is about twice as strong as Canadian red pine,
and being more gummy, is more durable and takes a better hold. At
Burrard Inlet, 9 miles from New Westminster, there are pine trees 27
to 30 feet in diameter. The yearly exports of timber amount to about
$250,000, but the vast forests have hardly been touched.
The mineral resources of British Columbia are very great. Gold is
found all along the Fraser and Thompson Rivers, and in great
abundance in the Cariboo district, the yield in that one locality
exceeding, in 1870, one million dollars, while the yield of the
entire province for the past ten year3 has exceeded twenty-two
million dollars. Silver and copper are also to be had in abundance,
but the mines have not as yet been very largely worked. The true
wealth of the province, however, is its coal fields, which are
inexhaustible, easy of access and easily worked. Bituminous coal is
found on the mainland and on Vancouver Island; and anthracite coal
on Queen Chariot to Island. The latter has been sold in San
Francisco for $20 per ton. The fisheries, which will some day
provide a source of national wealth, are amongst the most valuable
known. The climate of British Columbia is mild and favorable enough
to allow animals to live in the open air throughout the winter, and
in many parts the plains and hills are covered with a herb called
bunch grass, which possesses highly nutritious qualities and keeps
cattle in excellent condition during the whole winter. Winter lasts
from November till March; but snow seldom remains long on the
ground. The prevailing winds are from the N. in summer, and from the
S. and W. in winter.
The area of the land fit for agricultural settlement is estimated at
250,000 square miles, diversified by hill and dale, and watered by
numerous streams and lakes. The soil varies from a deep black
vegetable loam to a light brown, loamy earth; the hills supplying
slate and building stone. Wheat, barley, potatoes, turnips, apples,
pears, & grow luxuriantly.
The country is rich in fur-bearing animals, of which the principal
are the black, brown and grizzly bears, lynx, marten and beaver. The
annual product of the fur trade amounts to between $200,000 and
Shipbuilding is a branch of trade which promises to assume large
Manufactures are yet in their infancy.
Chief among the rivers of the country is the great Fraser River,
which pursues a rapid course between steep and rocky banks, until,
approaching the sea, it presents a fertile and finely wooded valley
from 50 to 60 miles in length. The total length of the Fraser River
is about 700 miles. The Thompson River surpasses the Fraser in the
richness of its scenery, and flows through one of the most beautiful
countries in the world. The Columbia is another noble stream. It
enters the United States at Fort Shepherd, after a course of nearly
800 miles in British territory. Total length about 1,200 miles.
The means of communication with the interior of British Columbia are
very good. Steamers ascend the Fraser River over 100 miles, to the
head of navigation, and for over 450 miles beyond this there is an
excellent graveled road, constructed by the government at great
expense. Burrard Inlet is the largest and finest harbor on the
mainland, and is spoken of as a probable terminus for the Pacific
British Columbia consists of two perfectly distinct parts; the
mainland above described and Vancouver Island. This island is the
largest in the Pacific, being 278 miles long, and 40 to 50 wide. It
is separated from the mainland by the Straits of Fuca, which are
about 16 miles in width, and by the Gulf of Georgia, which varies
from 30 miles in width to a narrowness that is bridgeable, viz: at
Valde's Island. The surface is marked by mountain ranges and
extensive plains. The soil is productive. The island is noted for
its coal mines. Gold has also been found. The harbors are numerous
and excellent, and Esquimalt Harbor, which is the Naval station, is
also referred to as not unlikely to prove the terminus of the Canada
The public affairs of British Columbia are administered by a
Lieutenant Governor, an Executive Council of five members, and a
Legislative Assembly composed of 25 representatives elected every
four years. Justice is dispensed by a Chief justice and two
Education is free to all; the schools are non-sectarian.
Victoria, Vancouver Island, is the capital of the province, and the
seat of the see of the Lord Bishop of British Columbia. It is
situated on a narrow inlet, which, completely landlocked, gives
accommodation to all vessels whose draught of water does not exceed
18 feet It is rapidly rising into a large city.
The number of arrivals in 1872 was 292 (tons 131,696,) and the
clearances 285 (tons 129.864.) Total value of imports $1,790,352;
Mails from Canada to British Columbia and vice versa are conveyed
between San Francisco and Victoria by the steamer Prince Alfred, an
iron steamship of 900 tons The service is performed twice a month.
Some mails are also conveyed by land to Portland or Olympia and
thence reach Victoria by another steamer. The Vancouver Island
postal service is performed from Victoria by the steamer Sir James
Douglas, which conveys the mails along the eastern coast as far as
Comox, 130 miles from Victoria, stopping at Cowichan, Maple Bay,
Chemainus, Nanaimo and Comox Cowichan is a flourishing place. It
possesses good schools, the only, stone church in the Province, and
a convent at which the Nuns (who are Canadians) teach trades to
Indian and half-breed girls. Nanaimo is also a flourishing town,
with bright prospects for the future. There are hardly any
settlements on the western coast, and there is in consequence no
postal service. The service to Comox is efficient and regular, and
is performed with every possible regard to economy. The mails for
the mainland are des-patched from Victoria. Some, of but little
importance, ate conveyed by the Sir James Douglas, as far as
Nanaimo, where the steamer Otter, belonging to the Hudson's Bay
Company, receives the mails for the" River Skeena. The other mails,
which are by far the most important, are conveyed from Victoria to
New Westminster, thence to Yale, and from Yale to Barkerville. The
service from Victoria to New Westminster is performed by the steamer
Enterprise, belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company. From New
Westminster to Yale, on the Fraser, the mails are conveyed, in
summer, by the steamer Lillouet. From Yale to Barkerville, the
service is performed by means of stages drawn by four or six horses.
Upon the Cariboo route, between Soda Creek and the mouth of the
Quesnel, the Fraser is navigable, and the Victoria makes the trip
promptly and safely, and affords to travellers every comfort that
can be desired. A steamboat has recently been placed on Lake Tatla,
to provide miners with facilities for reaching the mines of the
District of Ominica more speedily, more safely, and with less
Telegraph lines extend from Swinomish, in Washington Territory,
(United States) to Barkerville, at the extremity of the Cariboo
road. There is, besides, a branch line from Matsqui to Burrard Inlet
via New Westminster, in addition to a right of way over the line
belonging to the Western Union Telegraph Company, from Swinomish to
Victoria, which comprises two sub-marine cables. This line of
telegraph, which by the act completing the union of Columbia with
Canada, became the property of the Dominion, is 569 miles long, in
addition to the submarine portion which is a mile and a quarter in
length. The following is a list of the telegraph stations and tariff
for 10 words from Victoria:
Schome SO 50 I Lytton 1 00
Matsqui 50 | Spence's Bridge 1 20
N. Westminster 75 i Clinton 1 20
Burrard Inlet. 75
Chilukwoyuk. .. 75
Yiile 1 OJ
83-Mile House.. 1 25
Soda Creek 1 55
Quesnel 1 55
liarkerville 2 00
British Columbia is divided into 5 electoral districts for Dominion
elections, viz., New Westminster, Cariboo, Yale, Victoria, and
Vancouver, each of which, except Victoria, returns 1 member to the
House of Commons; Victoria returns 2 members. It is further
subdivided into 12 electoral districts for Provincial purposes.
British Columbia occupies a commanding position not only with regard
to the trade of the western part of America and the Pacific Islands,
but also with respect to China, Japan, and other Asiatic countries,
and the Australian colonies. Along the whole coast line of at least
10,000 miles, (following indents,) a perfect labyrinth of islands
exists, giving innumerable harbors, inlets and channels, teeming, as
well as the rivers that empty into (hem, with salmon, sturgeon,
mackerel, and, herring, halibut, oulachans and whales. Except the
whale fishery, these vast fisheries are altogether undeveloped.
This colony was first established in 1858, and has since made
remarkable progress. The total population last year was 10,586,
exclusive of Indians. This total comprised 8,576 whites, 462 Negroes
and 1,548 Chinese. The number of Indians is large, supposed to be
about 50,000. Some tribes have gathered together in villages, and
considerable progress has been made in the education of their
children. The construction of the Canada Pacific railway cannot fail
to develope the untold resources of this province, and add greatly
to the wealth and general prosperity of the Dominion. The distance
from Montreal to Victoria is 3,000 miles, which can now be
accomplished in 11 or 12 days, by the San Francisco route; but by
the future Canada Pacific railway, the distance will be reduced to
We are indebted to M. McLeod, Esq., district magistrate, Aylmer, P.
Q. (son of the late Chief Trader John McLeod, sen., of the Hudson's
Bay Company, and author of "Peace River," &c.,) for the following
information, as to the fertility of Northern British Columbia:
"At Fort St. James, about lat 54° 30' N., 2,000 feet above the sea,
the first barley (five quarts) sown produced five bushels, say about
84 bushels per acre. This was about 50 miles west of McLeod's Fort,
which last is the highest Post on the Rocky Mountains.
"At Fort Fraser, still further west, on the slope of the Cascade,
the first potatoes planted, about a bushel, produced forty-fold."
Mr. McLeod estimates the total area of British Columbia at 350,000
square miles, and the wheat area at 150,000 square miles, or
90,000,000 acres, being all south of lat. 55° N., (although there
are fine wheat valleys far beyond, N.) islands included. The grass,
barley and vegetable area north of the above -that is, from lat. 55°
to 60° N., (northern boundary line of British Columbia) and from lon.
120° W. to American boundary, 141° W., Mr. McLeod estimates at
100,000 square miles, or, 64,000,000 acres. A considerable portion,
say one-sixth, of these areas, is covered with lakes, numerous and,
like all the rivers, abounding with wholesome fish - fish, in fact,
is the native staple food.
Mr. McLeod further estimates the coast line of British Columbia at
10,000 miles, a predicate on that of Norway: the latter, on actual
measurement, having been found to have in its indented line thirteen
times the length of its coast in a straight line. In point of fact,
the British Columbia coast is much more, and more deeply indented
than that of Norway, some of the inlets running in upwards of fifty
miles. The inlets are full of salmon and other fish.
BRITISH HARBOR, a fishing settlement on the north shore of Trinity
Bay, Nfld., 26 miles from Hearts Content. Pop. 100.
BROAD COVE (Bay De Verds), a fishing settlement on the north shore
of Conception Bay, Nfld., 15 miles from Carbonear. Pop. 570.
BROAD COVE (Bonavista), a fishing settlement in the district of
Bonavista, Nfld., 26 miles from Trinity. Pop. 273.
BROAD COVE (Harbor Main), a fishing settlement at the head of
Conception Bay, Nfld., 37 miles from St. Join's. Pop. 90.
BROAD COVE (Intervale) a post village in Inverness co., NS., 10
miles from Mabou. It contains several stores. Pop. 250.
BROAD COVE (Marsh), a post village in Inverness CO., N.S, on the
Gulf of St. Lawrence, 20 miles from Mabou. It contains several
stores and mills. Pop. 150
BROAD COVE (St. John's), a fishing settlement in the district of St.
John's, Nfld., 10½ miles from St. John's. Pop. 305.
BROAD cove (Trinity), a small fishing settlement in the district of
Trinity, Nfld. Pop 21.
BROAD COVE, a village in Digby co., N.S., situated on Digby Neck,
near St. Marys Bay, 6 miles from Digby. It contains 2 stores. Pop.
BROAD COVE, or CHERRY HILL, a post village in Lunenburg co., N.S.,
on the sea coast, 24 miles from Bridgewater. Pop. 300.
BROAD COVE CHAPEL, a post settlement in Inverness co., N.S., on the
Gulf of St. Lawrence, 36 miles from Mabou. Pop. 150.
BROAD CREEK, Monck co., Ont. See Port Maitland.
BROADHAGEN, or BRODHAGEN, a pest village in Perth co., Ont., 5 miles
from Carronbrook. It has a sawmill, flax mill, rope factory, soap
and candle factory, and a printing office issuing a weekly
newspaper. Pop. 200.
BROADLANDS, a post village in Bonaventure co., Que., 5 miles from
Campballton, N.B. Pop. 50.
BROAD RIVER, a small village in Queens co., N.S., 8 miles from
Liverpool. Pop. 130.
BROADVILLE, Hastings co., Ont See Rutledgeville.
BROCK, a post office in Ontario co., Ont., 10 miles from Cannington.
BROCKAWAY, York co., N.B. See Magaguadavic.
BROCKTON, or LIPPIXCOTT, a post village in York co., Ont., 3 miles
from Toronto. It has a rope factory and several stores. Pop. 250.
BROCKVILLE, an electoral district in the S. E. part of Ontario,
comprises the town of Brockville and township of Elizabethtown,
having the St. Law-rence for its S. boundary. Area 75,200 acres. It
is traversed from E. to W. by the Grand Trunk railway, and from S.
to X. by the Brockville and Ottawa railway. Pop. 10,475.
BROCKVILLE, the chief town of the united counties of Leeds and
Grenville, Ontario, is situated at the foot of the Lake of a
Thousand Islands, on the Left bank of the St. Lawrence, 125 miles
S.W. of Montreal. It is a port of entry, an important station on the
G. T. R., the southern terminus and head office of the B. & O. R.,
and a port of calling of all steamers plying on the St. Lawrence.
The streets of the town are well laid out, lighted with gas, and
adorned with numerous handsome buildings, Here are agencies of the
Bank of Montreal and Molson's Bank, two telegraph and several fire
and life assurance companies. The town contains a large number of
stores, a foundry and machine shop, for the production of steam
engines and machinery of every description, a large stove foundry, a
manufactory of hardware and labor-saving machines, a white lead
factory, buck and kidd mitt factory, sash and blind factory, several
tanneries, flouring mills, saw mills, &c. There is also a
manufactory of sulphuric acid and superphosphate of lime, the
materials for which are found in the vicinity of the town. Two
weekly newspapers are published in Brockville. Total value of
imports for 1872, $555,400; exports $665,206. Pop. 5,102.
BROCKVILLE, a small settlement in Albert co., N.B., 7 miles from
Hopewell Corner. Pop. 75.
BRODHAGEN, Perth co., Ont. See Broadhagen.
BROME, a county of Quebec, bounded on the E. by Lake Memphremagog,
and on the S. by the State of Vermont. Area 300,455 acres. This
county is drained by a number of streams, and traversed by the South
Eastern railway. Capital, Knowlton. Pop. 13,757.
BROME or BROME CORNER, a post village in Brome co., Que., on a
branch of the Yamaska River, 4 miles from Sutton. It contains a
telegraph office, 2 saw mills, a planing mill, and 2 churches. Pop.
BROMEMERE, a post village in Brome co., Que., 5 miles from Waterloo.
BROME MOUNTAIN, a bold elevation of about 1,000 feet near West
Shefford, Brome co., Que.
BROME WOODS. Brome co., Que. See Iron Hill.
BROMPTON, a post office in Richmond co., Que., 4 miles from Brompton
BROMPTON FALLS, or ST. FRANCIS MILLS, a thriving post village in
Richmond co., Que., on the River St. Francis, with a station on the
G. T. R., 6 miles from Sherbrooke. It has a telegraph office,
several saw mills, a paper mill, and an extensive lumber trade. Pop.
BRONTE, a thriving post village in Halton co., Ont., at the entrance
of Twelve Mile Creek in Lake Ontario, with a station on the G. W.
R., 20 miles S.W. of Toronto. It contains a telegraph office,
printing office, and several stores and hotels. Pop. 550.
BROOKBURY, a post village in Compton co., Que., 26 miles from
Lennoxville. Pop. 100.
BROOKE, a hamlet in Lambton co., Ont. It has 1 store.
BROOKFIELD, a post village in Colchester co., N.S., on the I. R., 53
miles from Halifax. It contains a telegraph office, 3 stores, 2
hotels, and a tannery. There are deposits of iron ore in the
vicinity. Pop. 150.
BROOKFIELD, a post village and district in Queen's co., N.S., 27
miles from Liverpool. Pop. of district 660.
BROOKLAND, a small settlement in Pictou co., N.S., 8 miles from West
River. Pop. 150.
BROOKLIN, a thriving post village in Ontario co., Ont., on the W. &
P. P. R., G miles from Whitby. It contains 4 large flouring mills, a
tannery, an iron foundry, several furniture factories, a telegraph
office, &c. Pop. 650.
BROOKLYN, a small village in Annapolis co., N.S., 2 miles from
Middleton. Pop. 150.
BROOKLYN, a village in Yarmouth co., N.S., 2 miles from Yarmouth.
BROOKLYN, Hants co., N.S. See Newport.
BROOKLYN, or HERRING COVE, a post village in Queens co., N.S., on
the eastern side of Liverpool harbor, 2½ miles from Liverpool. It
contains 2 stores, 1 saw mill, and several shipyards. Pop. 300.
BROOKLYN, or MUSGRAVE HARBOR, a village on the west side of
Bonavista Bay, Nfld., 10 miles from Indian Arm. It has a good
harbor. Pop. 203.
BROOKLYN STREET, a settlement in Kings co., N.S., 5 miles from
Coldbrook. There are a number of small lakes in the vicinity. Pop.
BROOKSDALE, a post village in Oxford co., Ont., 11 miles from
Beachville. Pop. 60.
BROOKVALE, a post settlement in Queens co., N.B., 20 miles from
Apohaqui. Pop. 100.
BROOKVALE, or HIGGINS SETTLEMENT, a post office in Halifax co., N.S.,
20 miles from Shubenacadie.
BROOK VILLAGE, Inverness co., N.S. See Shea's River.
BROOKVILLE, a post settlement in Pictou co., N.S., 8 miles from New
Glasgow. Pop. 120.
BROOKVILLE, a post village in Cumberland co., N.S., on Minas Basin,
15 miles from Parrsborough. Pop. 100.
BROOKVILLE, a settlement in Yarmouth co., N.S., 16 miles from
BROOKVILLE, Compton co., Que. See Richby.
BROOKVILLE, Digby co., N.S. See Beaver River.
BROOKVILLE, Halton co., Ont. See Nassagaweya.
BROSSEAU'S, a station on the G. T. R. (Champlain division), in
Laprairie co., Que., 12 miles from Montreal.
BROUGHAM, or BENTLEY'S CORNERS, a post village in Ontario co., Ont.,
12 miles from Whitby. Pop. 300
BROUGHTON, or ST. PIERRE DE BROUGHTON, a post village in Beance co.,
Que., 54 miles from Quebec. Pop. 200.
BROWN'S BROOK, a post office in Cumberland co., N.S.
BROWNSBURG, a post village in Argenteuil co., Que., on a tributary
of the North River, 4 miles from Lachute. It contains 2 saw mils and
a carding and cloth factory. Pop. 60.
BROWNS CORNERS, Ontario co., Ont. See Audley.
BROWN'S CORNERS, Simcoe co., Ont. See Rosemont.
BROWN'S CORNERS, York co., Ont. See Buttonville.
BROWN'S CREEK, a hamlet in Queens co., P.E.I. It contain.; a store.
BROWNSVILLE, a post village in Oxford co., Ont., 13 miles from
Ingersoll. Pop. 100.
IWNSVILLE, York co., Ont. See Schomberg.
BRUCE, a county in the N.W. part of Ontario, bordering on Lake
Huron, has an area of 1,048,156 acres. It is drained by the Saugeen
River and traversed by two railways, the Toronto, Grey and Bruce,
and Wellington, Grey and Bruce. Pop. 48,515.
BRUCEFIELD, a post village in Huron co., Ont., 6 miles from Seaforth.
It has a telegraph office, 2 hotels, and 3 stores. Pop. 250.
BRUCE MINKS, a post village in the district of Algoma, situated on
the N. shore of Lake Huron, opposite the east end of the Island of
St. Joseph, on the location of the Bruce, Wellington and Huron
Copper Bay mines, 337 miles from Collingwood, and 45 miles S.E. of
Sault Ste. Marie. It contains 3 churches and 5 stores. The copper
mines, which are very extensive, are worked by Messrs. John Taylor &
Sons, of London, England. Steamers from Collingwood and Sarnia touch
at this place en route for Thunder Bay, Fort William and Duluth.
BRUDENELL, a post village in Renfrew co., Ont., 42 miles from
Renfrew. It has a telegraph office and 2 stores. Pop. 60.
BRULE, or BREWLEY, a small fishing settlement on Long Island.
Placentia Bay, Nfld., 14 miles from Little Placentia. Pop. 67.
BRULE HARBOR, Colchester co., N.S. See Point Brule.
BRUNET, an island at the entrance of Fortune Bay, Nfld., 4 miles
from Harbor Briton. It has a lighthouse exhibiting a revolving white
light 408 feet above the level of the sea. Pop. 80.
BRUNNER, a post village in Perch co., Ont., 14 miles from Stratford.
BRUNSWICK, a post village in Durham, co., Ont., on the M. R., 26
miles from Port Hope.
BRUNSWICK, NEW. See New Brunswick.
BRUSSELS, an incorporated village in Huron co., Ont., on the River
Maitland, and on the W. G. & B. R. (South extension), 40 miles from
Kincardine. It contains 6 churches (1 Episcopal, 2 Presbyterian and
3 Methodist), 6 hotels, 2 saw mills, 2 gristmills, an iron foundry,
a woolen factory, 1 door and sash factory, 1 cheese factory, a
planing mill, 2 tin shops and furniture depots, 17 stores (6
general, 2 drug, 6 grocery, 2 clothing and l jewellery), a telegraph
office, and a printing office issuing a weekly newspaper. Pop. 1000.
BRYAN'S CROSS, a hamlet in Queens co., P.E.I. It contains a hotel.
BRYANSTON, or GOODWOOD, a post village in Middlesex co., Ont., 12
miles from London. It contains 2 stores and a saw mill, and has a
good lumber trade. Pop. 100.
BRYANTS COVE, a fishing settlement on the north side of Conception
Bay, Nfld., 9 miles from Harbor Grace. Pop. 263.
BRYSON, formerly HARGRAVE, a post village of Quebec, capital of the
co. of Pontiac, on the Ottawa River, at the head of Calumet Falls, 8
miles from Portage du Fort, 60 miles from Ottawa It contains 1
Episcopal and 1 Presbyterian church, a telegraph office, 9 stores, 4
hotels, 1 grist and saw mill, and a printing office issuing a weekly
newspaper Pop. 250.
BUCKFIELD, a small settlement in Queens co., N S., 46 miles from
Annapolis Pop. 40.
BUCKHORN, a post village in Kent co., Ont. 11 miles from Chatham.
BUCKINGHAM, an incorporated village in Ottawa co., Que , on the
Rivière du Lievre, near its outlet into the Ottawa, 18 miles from
Ottawa. It has 2 telegraph offices and about 18 stores. A plumbago
mine is worked in the Vicinity. Pop 1,301.
BUCKLAND, or NOTRE DAME AUXILIATRICE, a post village in Bellechasse
co., Que., 27 miles from St Charles. It contains grist, saw and
carding mills, and 3 stores. Pop. 350.
BUCKLAW, a post office in Victoria co., N.S
BUCKLEY'S, or UNION SQUARE, a post settlement n Kings co., N S., 18
miles from Kentville Pop. 100
BUCKSHOT MILLS, a small village in Frontenac co., Ont., 43 miles
from Smiths Falls Pop 35.
BUCTOUCHE, a thriving post village in Kent co., N.B., on Buctouche
River, 21 miles from Shediac It contains a telegraph office, 8
stores, 2 hotels, a sawmill, and several shipyards. Pop 500
BULL COVE, a fishing settlement on the north side of Conception Bay,
Nfld., 2 miles from Brigus Pop 150
BULLOCK'S CORNERS, a village in Wentworth co., Ont., ½ mile from
Dundas. It contains grist, flouring, and cotton baiting mills, and a
large woolen factory. Pop 150.
BULSTRODE, or ST VALERIE DE BULSTRODE, a post village in Arthabaska
co., Que., on Wolfe river, a branch of the Nicolet, with a station
on the G T R. (Three Rivers branch), 11 miles from Arthabaska. It
has 2 sawmills and a grist mill, and a good trade in lumber and
country produce. Pop 120.
BULWER. a post village in Compton co., Que., 9 miles from
Lennoxville. Pop 150.
BUNGAY, a hamlet in Queens co., P.E.I. It contains a shoe factory
and 1 store.
BURFORD, or CLEARMONT, a post village in Brant co., Ont., 9 miles
from Brantford. It contains 3 churches, 5 stores and several mills.
BURGEO, a small fishing settlement on the west side of Placentia
Bay, Nfld., 13 miles from Placentia. Pop. 50.
BURGESSVILLE, a post village in Oxford co., Ont., 11 miles from
Woodstock. It contains a woolen factory, and a cheese factory. Pop.
BURGOYNE, or STARK'S CORNERS, a post village in Bruce co , Ont., 23
miles from Walkerton. Pop. 180.
BURGUM'S COVE, a settlement on Random Sound, north arm of Trinity
Bay, Nfld. The surrounding scenery is very beautiful. Slate quarries
are worked here. Pop. 40.
BURIN, a post town and port of entry, on the west side of Placentia
Bay, Nfld., 162 miles from St. John's, It has a fine harbor, with
two entrances. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the fisheries.
A steamer runs between St. John's and Burin once a fortnight. Pop
BURLEIGH, a post village and river port in Peterborough co., Ont.,
on the Otonabee river, 28 miles from Lakefield. Pop 120
BURLINGTON, a post office in Kings co., N.S., 2 miles from
BURLINGTON, a post village in Prince co., P.E.I., 33 miles from
Charlottetown. Pop. 150
BURLINGTON, Hants co., N.S. See Kennetcook.
BURNBRA E. a post village in Northumberland co., Out., 28 miles from
Belleville. Pop 200.
BURN COVE, a small fishing settlement in the district of Ferryland,
Nfld., on the strait shore, 28 miles south of St John's Pop 73
BURNHAMTHORPE, a post village in Peel co., Ont., 7½ miles from
Malton. Pop 50.
BURN ISLAND, an island off the west coast of Placentia Bay, Nfld., 5
miles from Paradise. Pop. 53.
BURNLEY, or GRIMSHAWE'S MILLS, a post village on Mill Creek, in
Northumberland co., Ont., 14 miles from Colborne. It contains grist,
saw-and shingle mills. Pop. 250.
BURNS, a post village in Perth co., Ont., 23 miles from Stratford.
BURNSIDE, a post office in Marquette co., Man., 9 miles from Portage
BURNSTOWN, a post village m Renfrew co., Ont., on the Madawaska
River, 15 miles from Arnprior. It contains 1 sawmill and 3 stores.
BURNT CHURCH, a post settlement in Northumberland co., N.B., on the
W side of the Miramichi River, 20 miles from Chatham. Pop. 200.
BURNT COAL, a post settlement in Hints co., N.S., on Minas Basin, 30
miles from Sbubenacadie Pop. 70.
BURNT HEAL), a small fishing settlement on the N side of Conception
Bay, Nfld., 2 miles from Brigus. Pop. 77.
BURNT ISLAND, one of a group of islands on the west side of
Bonavista Bay, Nfld., 7 miles from Green's Pond. Pop. 130.
BURNT ISLAND, one of a group of islands off the southern coast of
Newfoundland, in the district of Burgeo and La Poile, 8 miles from
Rose Blanche. Pop. 160
BURNT POINT, a fishing settlement on the N. shore of Conception Lay,
Nfld., 24 miles from Carbonear. Pop 101
BURNT RIVER, a post office in Victoria co., Ont.
BURNVILLE, or BLACKLEYS CORNERS, a small village in Oxford co.,
Ont., 4 miles from Tilsonburg. Pop. 40
BURRARD INLET, a post village of British Columbia, on the Gulf of
Georgia, 9 miles from New Westminster. Its harbor is one of the
finest on the Pacific coast, and is frequented by a large number of
vessels. It is 9 miles in length, easy of access for vessels of any
size or class, and deep and safe. Burrard Inlet is the centre of the
timber trade of continental Columbia, and the most accessible port
from the valley of the Fraser. It is spoken of as the probable
Western terminus of the Canada Pacific railway. Pop. 500 exclusive
of 700 Indians.
BURR1TTS RAPIDS, a post village in Grenville co., Ont., on the
Rideau canal, 10 miles from Kemptville. It has good water power
privileges, and contains saw, shingle and grist mills, and 2
telegraph offices Pop. 400.
BURROWSVILLE, a hamlet in Grey co., Ont. It has 1 store
BURTOH, a post village in Brant co., Ont., 5 miles from Brantford.
BURTON, a post village in Durham co., Ont., 12 miles from Bethany.
BURTON, a post village and parish in Sunbury co., N.B , on the St
John River, 18 miles from Fredericton. Pop. 1,030
BURTON'S POND, a mining settlement on the north side of Green Bay,
Nild., 10 miles from Tilt Cove. A copper mho is worked here. Pop.
BURWICK, York co., Ont. See Woodbridge.
BURY, a township in Compton co., Que., 115 miles E. of Montreal.
BURYING PLACE, a fishing settlement on the north side of Notre Dame
Lay, Nfld., 7 miles from Tilt Cove This is supposed to have been an
Indian burying ground. Pop. 120.
BURY'S GREEN, a post settlement in Victoria co., Ont., 9 miles from
Bobcaygeon. Pop. 90.
BUSHFIELD, a post village in Huron co,, Ont., 10 miles from Clinton.
It contains a steam saw mill and a store. Pop. 200.
BUTE, a post village in Megantic co., Que., 2 miles from Becancour
Station. Pop. 150.
BUTLER'S COVE, a small fishing settlement on Mortier Bay, district
of Burn, Nfld., 13 miles from Burin The surrounding scenery is very
beautiful. Pop. 70.
BUTTERNUT RIDGE, a post settlement in Kings co., N.B., 12 miles from
Petitcodiac Pop. 500.
BUTTER POTS, two remarkable hills in Newfoundland. They are upwards
of 1000 feet high, 20 miles apart, and form the extremities of a
range of hills.
BUTTONVILLE, or BROWN'S CORNERS, a post village in York co., Ont.,
3½ miles from Unionville. Pop. 90.
BUXTON, a post village in Kent co., Ont., 13 miles from Chatham.
BYNG, or HALDIMAND, a post village in Haldimand co., Ont., situated
on Grand River, 1 mile from Dunnville. It contains 2 gristmills and
a carding and spinning mill. Pop. 150.
BYNG INLET, a post village in the district of Algoma, Ont , at the
mouth of the Maganetawan River on the north shore of Georgian Bay,
90 miles from Collingwood It contains 2 large saw mills,
manufacturing about 20,000,000 feet of lumber annually. A steamer
from Collingwood calls here every week. Pop 307
BYRON, a post village in Middlesex co., Ont., on the River Thames, 6
miles from London It has good water power privileges and contains
two woolen factories. Pop 125.
BYRON'S ISLAND, an island on the E. coast of Labrador, in lat 54° 40
N. lon. 57° 30 W.
BYTOWN, the capital of the Dominion of Canada See Ottawa.
Lovell's Gazetteer of British North America,
Edited by P.A. Crossby, 1873
Lovell's Gazetteer of British North America