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The Dominion of Canada

A Federal Union of Provinces and Territories, comprising all the British possessions in North America, except the Island of Newfoundland. It is bounded E. by the Atlantic Ocean, Davis's Strait, and Baffin's Bay; W. by Alaska, the Pacific Ocean and Queen Charlotte's Sound; N. by the Arctic Ocean; and S., S.E., and S.W. by the United States. Area 3,330,1 G2 square miles, - 393,996 square miles larger than the United States. Of this immense area, nearly equaling in extent the continent of Europe, about 700,000 square miles are covered with water.

Face of the country. - It is but natural to suppose that in such a vast extent of country there is every variety of surface - mountain, plateau and valley. Beginning at the Atlantic frontier of Nova Scotia a range of highlands skirts the seaboard and extends inland for 15 or 20 miles. This dislocated range of metamorphic hills nowhere assumes the height of mountains. Sixty miles in-land from this seaboard, and nearly parallel thereto, the Cobequid Mountains, some of which are 1,100 feet high, traverse Nova Scotia, from the Bay of Fundy to the Strait of Canso. This range is clothed with a large growth of timber, to its summit, where agricultural products grow luxuriantly. Between the Atlantic and Cobequid ranges is a wide and fertile valley, embracing the entire length of Nova Scotia proper. The third mountainous range, of moderate elevations, traverses the boundary between Quebec and New Brunswick, from the State of Maine to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Between this range and the Cobequid Mountains, with which it runs parallel, is an extensive plateau of fertile lands embracing nearly the whole of New Brunswick and a large part of Nova Scotia. The coast of Labrador is mountain us. The mountain formations of the country lying between the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Rocky Mountains assume a different direction from the lower mountain ranges above referred to. The country presents a terraced character; the navigation of the principal Streams is obstructed by numerous fails and rapids, the result of convulsions of no ordinary nature. The principal part of the mountainous districts runs in the direction of the great rivers and lakes lying between the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Rocky Mountains. On either side of the valley of the estuary of the St. Lawrence is a range of mountainous country. That on the north is called the Laurentides. It terminates easterly at the coast of Labrador and extends up the N side of the Ottawa for 100 miles, then sweeps round to the Thousand Islands sear Kingston, then gains the southern extremity of Georgian Bay, continues along the eastern and northern shores of Lake Huron and Lake Superior, and ultimately reaches the Arctic Ocean; its whole course is about 3,500 miles. This chain varies from hills of 200 feet to that of mountains, culminating near Lake Superior to a height of 2,100 feet. It gives the water shed separating the tributaries of the St Lawrence from those of Hudson's Bay; but beyond the basin of the St Lawrence it is traversed by two afflicts of this bay, the Saskatchewan and the Churchill, the former taking its source in the Rocky Mountains; while still farther on, the range becomes the limit of Hudson's Bay rivers, dividing their sources and those of the Buck River and other streams, for 800 miles, from the Mackenzie River. In the valleys and lower parts of the Laurentian region there are considerable of good land, having deep, rich soil and bearing heavy timber. In the higher parts of the rigor of the climate scarcely permits the cultivation of the cereals. The southern range (called Notre Dame Mountains) is a spur of the Alleghanies, which, commencing at the Gulf of St. Lawrence, forms a prolonged chain of mountains through the States as far as Virginal. In its course through Canada it runs nearly parallel to the River St. Lawrence at from 20 to 50 miles distance; and passes south of Lake Champlain. Its greatest elevation on the Canadian side (the Shickshock Mountains on the Gaspe peninsula,) is about 4,000 feet. The Blue Mountains on the S. side of Georgian Bay attain a height of 1,900 it above the level of Lake Huron. The country lying between Lake Superior and the Rocky Mountains is intersected by numerous chains of mountains, with extensive valleys of fertile lauds intervening. The Rocky Mountains, the dominant ridge of the continent, stretch from Alaska to California. Some peaks on Canadian territory attain a height of 15,000 feet. Between these mountains and the Pacific coast, are the Selkirk Mountains, the Gold Range, the great central hilly plateau or tableland, and the Coast or Cascade Range. All these mountain chains as well as the central plateau have a general N.W. and S.E. course. The Cascade Range is the northward extension of the Sierra Nevada; the central plateau bears a similar relation to the great volcanic arid and hilly tableland of the State of Nevada; and the Selkirk and Gold Range, may be paralleled with the Bitter Root Mountains between Montana and Idaho. The highest points of the Cascade Mountains do not exceed 7,000 feet. The central plateau has an average elevation of from 1,000 to 3,000 feet. The Selkirk Mountains, towards the north, in the vicinity of Cariboo and about the sources of the North Thompson, have a somewhat greater average elevation than the Cascades. The highest known summits of the Rocky Mountains are Mount Murchison, Mount Hooper and Mount Brown, estimated at from 12,000 to 15,000 feet. They have never been ascended. Of the principal part of the territory lying around Hudson's Bay little is yet known.

Minerals. - The Dominion of Canada contains within its limits almost every variety of mineral wealth. The gold deposits of British Columbia and Nova Scotia are among the richest existing on the globe. The gold area of Nova Scotia is known to spread over an ex-tent of at Least 6,000 square miles. The lodes are regular in structure and preserve their richness to depths of 200 and 300 feet. The gold extracted from quarts, rock is remarkably fine and pure. In British Columbia the precious metal is not confined to any one section. It is found all along the Fraser and Thompson rivers, again in the north along the Peace and Ommeca Rivers, and on Germansen Creek and on Vancouver Island. From the United States frontier to the 53rd degree of latitude, and fur a width of from 1 to 20(1 miles, gold is found nearly everywhere. Profitable gold mines are worked in the county of Beauce, Quebec. Gold is also found in the county of Hastings, Ontario; on the banks of the Shiktehawk, a tributary of the River St. John, (New Brunswick); on the Athabasca, McLeod and Pembina Rivers, winch flow into the Arctic Ocean; and on the North Saskatchewan, Red Deer and Bow Rivers, flowing into the Lake Winnipeg. The Blackfeet Indians have been so hostile to miners in the Saskatchewan country that it was only in the neighborhood of the Hudson's Bay Company's forts that Continued washing for gold could be carried on in the neighborhood of Fort Edmonton from $3 to $12 worth of g0ld has frequently been washed in a day by one man. Miners who have visited the gold fields of the North West Territories proclaim them to be enormously rich. Extraordinary deposits of silver ore are found in several islands on the N. shore of Lake Superior; also in numerous veins of argentiferous galena scattered over that portion of Quebec to the south of the St. Lawrence. Silver is also found in Nova Scotia, and in the Fraser valley in British Columbia. Copper is abundant in every portion of the Dominion - in British Columbia, the North West Territories, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The copper mines of Ontario are very valuable. On the shores of Lake Huron and Superior copper is found in large quantities. In the province of Quebec extensive and exceedingly productive mining operations are carried on in the Eastern Townships, at the Harvey, Hartford, Huntington, Capel and Ives mines. The Copper Mountains of the North West Territories are extraordinarily rich, but difficult of access. Lead occurs in many places in the Laurentian range. A mine in rear of Kingston, Ont., has exposed a deposit of remarkable richness and extent. Lead is also found on the N. shore of Lake Superior, often rich in silver, on the shore of Gaspe, in the Eastern Town-ships, and in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Veins of lead traverse the rocks of Coronation Gulf. Iron occurs in prodigious quantities in the Laurentian range. At Hull, near Ottawa, there is abed about 00 feet in thickness containing not less than 250,000,000 tons of iron; on the Rideau canal there is a bed 200 feet thick containing double the above amount; and at Marmora there are five beds which are computed to contain an aggregate of 1,000,000,000 tons. These extraordinary deposits are of the magnetic species, yielding 60 to 70 per cent, of pure iron, and occur in the same geological formation from which the celebrated Swedish iron is made. Extensive beds of good iron occur in the Eastern Townships, also in the neighborhood of Lake Nipissing; and at various localities along the N. shore of the St. Lawrence considerable quantities of bog iron ore are found. Near Three Rivers, cast and wrought iron of a very superior quality has been produced from this ore for upwards of a century. At the mouth of the Moisic River, about 300 miles be-low Quebec, there is a vast deposit of magnetite, estimated to contain about 20,000,000 tons of iron. It lies on the surface in the shape of black sand, perfectly free from sulphur or phosphorous, and the iron manufactured is of superior quality and peculiarly suited to the manufacture of the finest steel, edge tools, &c. Iron is also found in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and in the Saskatchewan valley. Iii the former province it is melted and manufactured on a large scale on the Cobequid Mountains. Chromic iron, a mineral which is highly prized for the manufacture of the eliminates of potash and lead, and for the many beautiful red, yellow, and green colors, is found in considerable quantities in the Eastern Townships of Quebec, and in the Shickshock Mountains. Iron ochres are distributed in many parts of Canada, and chiefly in association with the bog iron ores. Some of these beds have been partially worked and supply an excellent material, of a great variety of shades of color. The iron ochres of Canada are equal to those of France. Nickel and Cobalt are found in several localities in Canada, but chiefly on the N. shore of Lake Huron and Lake Superior. Plumbago or graphite occurs in workable quantities near Ottawa, in rear of Kingston, and near St. John, N.B. Sulphate of barytes, soapstone, lithographic stone, tin, zinc, bismuth, antimony, magnesia, and manganese are found in several parts of the Dominion. Mica is found in great abundance and of extreme purity in Grenville, on the Ottawa River, and in the township of North Burgess, near the Rideau Canal. There are very large deposits of phosphate of lime behind Brockville and at other places in Ontario. Large quantities of iron pyrites are found near these deposits. The conditions are therefore favorable for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, and for converting the phosphate of lime into super-phosphate for manure. Beautiful serpentine and verd antique marbles are bund in different parts of Quebec, and in Cape Breton there is a marble mountain which contains some of the finest specimens of white and colored marble. Springs of petroleum or mineral oil occur in several localities in the S.W. part of Ontario, and from the numerous wells already sunk millions of gallons have been taken. The oil bearing rock (Lower Devoman limestone,) extends over a large portion of the western peninsula; and though one part, after another may be exhausted and abandoned, and the exhaustion of the whole region is but a matter of time, it will probably be long before oil boring has travelled over the whole productive district. On the Gaspe Peninsula natural springs yielding small amounts of petroleum are found over a considerable area. The oil in this region occurs in the upper Silurian rocks. There are no less than 60,000 acres of peat lands in Quebec, not including the great bed in the Island of Anticosti, which contains as many more, and at least 30,000 acres in Ontario. In many of the bogs the peat attains a depth of 10 and 20 feet, and even more. It is compressed and used for various purposes, with success, instead of coal. Of the other minerals coal is the most important. It is found in Nova Scotia, in New Brunswick, in British Columbia, and in the North West Territories. The coalfields of Nova Scotia are of vast extent and value, and have been worked more or less since the first settlement of the colony by the British. The most important mines are at Pictou and Sydney, C.B. They contain a sufficient quantity to supply the whole steam navy of Great Britain for many centuries to come, and also to meet amply the demands of the other North American colonies bordering on the Atlantic. The coalmines of British Columbia are even more valuable than the gold. Bituminous coal is found on Vancouver Island in several places, especially along the East coast. The coal is of fair quality, superior to the Scotch, but not equal 'to the Welsh. Veins of coal have been found in other part; of the Province. Anthracite coed, very excellent in quality, is found on Queen Charlotte's Island. The coalfields of New Brunswick cover an area of about 10,000 square miles. The Albert coal is one of the most beautiful of all carboniferous products; it is jet black, brilliant and lustrous, with a conchoidal fracture, and is extremely brittle. It is chiefly used in the manufacture of illuminating oils (of which it yields, by distillation, a large percentage, a id of the very best quality,) and gas. The coal mined at Grand Lake is of an excellent quality, being hard, rather lustrous, giving out much heat in burning, and lasting longer than most other coal. The great coal bed of the North West Territories commences 150 miles East of the Rocky Mountains. It is 300 miles in width, and extends over 1G degrees of latitude, to the Arctic Ocean. There are no coalmines in Ontario or Quebec. Salt springs, strongly saturated, arc numerous in New Brunswick, and salt wells of great richness are worked in the counties of Ontario bordering on Lake Huron. Agates, jaspers, diamonds, rubies, pearls, feldspar, amethysts, carnelians, chalcedonies, cairngorms, porphyries, &c, are found in several parts of the Dominion.

Gulfs, Bays, Rivers, Lakes, &c. - The coasts of the Dominion have numerous indentations, the most remarkable of which are Hudson's Bay - one of the most extensive inland seas on the globe - the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the Gulf of Georgia. The hydrographical basin of the St. Lawrence and its estuary comprises an area of about 530,-000 square miles. In form it presents an irregular parallelogram running nearly S.W. for about 900 miles, with a pretty uniform breadth of 250 miles; the southern side in its farther progress sweeping round in a "wide semi-circle, the diameter of which extends about 900 miles to the N.W. The Great Lakes into which the river expands - Superior, Hun n, Michigan, St. Clair, Erie and Ontario, - with its estuary, have au area of about 130,000 square miles, leaving for the lands drained by the river an area of 400,000 square miles. At least 330.000 square miles of these belong to Canada, the remainder constitutes a part of the United States. With the exception of about 50,000 square miles (including the whole of the Gaspe peninsula) in the eastern part of Quebec, the Canadian portion lies wholly on the N. side of the river, while the only part of the United States which does so is situated at the west end of Lake Superior. The principal rivers flowing into the St. Lawrence are the Ottawa, 800 miles long, with many large tributaries; the St. Maurice. 400 miles long; the Batiscan, the Chaudière, the Richelieu, the St. Francis, the Hamilton, the Moisic, the Romaine, the Ste. Anne, and the mighty Saguenay. The other chief rivers in the Dominion are the Saskatchewan, which rises in the Rocky Mountains, traverses 15 J of longitude, or a distance of at least 900 miles, and falls into the Great Lake Winnipeg in lat. 55° N. This lake is connected with Hudson's Bay by the Nelson River, about 500 miles in length. Lake Athabasca, situated about lat. 59°N., and lon. 110° W. receives, among others, the Peace River and the Athabasca, a large stream rising in the Rocky Mountains near the source of the Columbia. The Fraser River, the golden stream of British Columbia, raises in the Rocky Mountains and enters the Pacific after a course of about 700 miles. The Columbia, 1200 miles long, also rises in the Rocky Mountains. The Mackenzie, entering the Arctic Ocean, is one of the largest rivers on the globe. East of it, and also flowing into the Arctic, are the Coppermine and Fish Rivers. The Gatineau, the Keepawa, the Matawan, the Mistassini, the Churchill, the Dumoine, the Miramichi, the Restigouche, the St. John, the Avon, the Clyde, the Grand, the Trent and the Nipigon are all important rivers, and the Great Bear, Great Slave, Manitoba, Lake of the Woods, Mistassini, St. John, Nipigon and Nipissing are all magnificent lakes, but they are so fully described among the rivers and lakes that it is unnecessary to repeat them here. The rivers and lakes of the Dominion number several thousands. Of these descriptions of over 1500, which include all the most important, are given in another part of this work.

Climate. - The climate of Canada is nearly the same as that of Norway, Sweden, St. Petersburg, and the S. of Iceland. Both the heat of summer and the cold of winter are much greater than in the corresponding latitudes of Europe. The climate of Nova Scotia is extremely temperate, considering its northern latitude. In Halifax and the eastern counties the mercury seldom rises in summer above 86° in the shade, and in winter it is not often down to zero. In the interior the winter is about the same, but the summer is considerably warmer. The climate of New Brunswick is subject to great extremes of heat and cold: the thermometer sometimes rising to 100° during the day and falling in the forest during the night of the same day to 50°. Still the climate is exceedingly healthy and favorable for agricultural operations. The climate of Prince Edward Island is much milder than that of Nova Scotia or New Brunswick, and is remarkably salubrious. The winter is long and cold, but the summer is eminently fitted for the growth of all ordinary cereals. The winters of Quebec are cold and the summers somewhat similar to those of France. There are at times in winter snowfalls of 3 or 4 feet and the thermometer sinks very low; but the atmosphere is generally dry and exhilarating. The cold, therefore, is not felt to be unpleasant, in fact not nearly so much so as the cold of the winters in England. The climate of Quebec is altogether one of the healthiest under the sun, as well as one of the most pleasant to live in. The winter of Ontario is much milder than that of Quebec owing to its being near the lakes. Manitoba and the Saskatchewan country have the same summer temperature as the most favored parts of the St. Lawrence valley, as Central Pennsylvania and Southern New Eng-land. The winter isothermal is that of Quebec. The climate of British Columbia varies according to the locality, owing principally to four causes, greater or less distance from the sea and from the vicinity of the mountain regions, difference in the nature and quantity of the vegetable growth, and difference of level. The low portions near the sea and on Vancouver Island have a moderate climate with a general range of from 20° in winter, to 80° in summer. The temperature on the island is lower than on the mainland owing to the prevailing southern winds. Along the coast of British Columbia, for 150 miles inland, the climate is humid, the thermometer rarely falling below 10° or rising above 90°. Rain is abundant during the spring and during the summer and autumn. Snow neither falls heavily nor lies long, and the frosts are not severe, ice being seldom more than an inch thick. In the middle districts the summer heat is intense, and in winter mercury commonly freezes.

Soil and Productions. - By far the greater part of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, and the country lying between Lake Superior and the Pacific Ocean and Vancouver Island is admirably adapted for agricultural pursuits. The soil of Quebec is exceedingly fertile and capable of high cultivation; the cereals, hay, root crops and fruits grow in abundance and perfection. The great wealth of Ontario is the richness of its soil and the favorable nature of its climate for agricultural operations. The extreme S.W. district of the province is distinguished by its adaptability to the growth of many fruits, shrubs and flowers, which will not come to perfection in any other part of Canada. Here the peach ripens in the open air, the finer kinds of grapes grow well, the tulip tree blossoms, the catalpa is not cut down by frost, the chestnut tree bears, and the finest kinds of apples and pears are cultivated. The valley of the Thames, together with the rich alluvial flats which extend from it northward to the north branch of Bear Creek, and southward nearly to the shore of Lake Erie, is remarkable for its great fertility, and luxuriant forest growth. The soil is generally clay, with covering of rich vegetable mould, and is covered in the natural state with elm, oak, black walnut and whitewood trees of large size, together with fine groves of sugar maple. Towards the mouth of the Thames, and on the borders of Lake St. Clair, is an area of natural prairie of about 30,000 acres. It lie3 but little above the level of the lake, and is in large part overflowed in time of spring floods. The soil of this prairie is a deep unctuous mould, covered chiefly with grass, with here and there copses of maple, walnut, and elm, and with willows dotting the surface of the plain. Along the shore3 of Lake Huron and Lake Superior oats and barley grow well, but northward, at the dividing ridge between the waters flowing into Hudson's Bay and into the lakes, it is difficult to raise even potatoes. The natural vegetation in the Red River and Saskatchewan valleys is luxuriant. The soil is an alluvial, black argillaceous mould, rich in organic deposit and resting at a depth of 2 to 4 feet on a tenacious clay soil. Some fields at Red River have been known to produce 20 successive crops of wheat without fallow or manure, the yield being frequently 30 to 40 bushels to the acre. Barley yields enormous returns, with a weight of from 50 to 55 lbs. to the bushel. Oats thrive well. Potatoes are particularly successful, unsurpassed in quality, and the yield remarkably prolific. Turnips, carrots, cabbages and other root crops do nearly as well as potatoes. Buffaloes winter on the prairie grasses up as high as Lake Athabasca, and the horses of the settlers run at large and grow fat on the grasses they pick up in the woods and bottoms. As an agricultural country British Columbia has boon much under-estimated. The tracts of arable land are of very great extent. A portion of these, however, require artificial irrigation. This is easy to be obtained and not. expensive, and lands so irrigated are of very great fertility, yielding as much as 40 bushels of wheat to the acre. The tracts of land suitable to grazing purposes are of almost end-less extent. On the Cariboo road there is a plain 150 miles long and 60 or 80 wide, and between the Thompson and Fraser rivers there is an immense tract of arable and grazing land. The hills and plains are covered with bunch grass on which the cattle and horses live all winter, and its nutritive qualities are said to exceed the celebrated blue grass and clover of Virginia. In Nova Scotia apples, plums, pears, quinces, cherries, etc., are easily cultivated; grains and root crops do well, and Indian corn will ripen. The climate of New Brunswick is exceedingly favorable for agricultural operations. The average yield per acre is greater than in the Slate of New York or Ohio. The Island of Prince Edward is eminently agricultural and pastoral. The far greater portion of the Dominion is still covered with forests, chiefly white and red pine, immense quantities of which are annually ex-ported. The principal trees of British Columbia are the Douglas pine, Menzics fir, yellow fir, balsam, hemlock, white pine, cedar, yellow cypress, arbor vitae, yew, oak, white maple, arbutus, alder, dog wood, aspen, cherry, crab apple, and cottonwood; of the North West Territories, poplar, and oak, spruce, scrub pines, balsam, aspen and birch; of Ontario and Quebec, pine, tamarac, balsam, cedar, maple, birch, poplar, ash, elm, cherry, alder, beech, willow, hemlock, etc.; and of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, oak, beech, birch, maple, ash, poplar, larch, spruce, pine, hemlock, etc.

Wild Animals. - These comprise the black bear, grizzly bear, wolf, buffalo, deer, panther, moose, caribou, wild cat, antelope, prairie dog (a burrowing animal), red fox, silver gray fox, black fox (rare), beaver, muskrat, marmot, squirrel, rabbit, weasel, skunk, raccoon, wolverine, marten, mink, seal, lynx, ermine, porcupine, Rocky Mountain sheep, otter, fisher, etc. Among birds there are two species of the eagle, four species of the hawk and four species of the owl; also wild swans, wild turkeys, woodcocks, snipes, pigeons, pheasants, ducks of many varieties, grouse, ptarmigan, quail, and wild geese. Among the smaller feathered tribe are many beautiful bird-; - jays, woodpeckers, blackbirds of numerous and beautiful varieties, wrens, sparrows, thrushes, blue birds, larks, robins, whippoorwills, and two species of humming birds. Besides these there are kites, bitterns, herons, crows, king-fishers, partridges, cranes, swallows, ravens, etc. There are no less than 243 species of birds in New Brunswick and a list of the birds of North America published in 1856 gives a number of no less than 716. Among reptiles are rattlesnakes and various other kinds of snakes, and lizards. Among fish, cod-fish, salmon, salmon trout, whitefish, mackerel, shad, herring, halibut, bass, sturgeon, muskellunge, etc.; and among shell fish, oysters, crabs, lobsters and turtles.

Manufactures. - The principal articles manufactured in Ontario and Quebec are cloth, linen, furniture, leather, sawn lumber, flax, hardware, paper, glass, chemicals, soap, boots and shoes, cotton and woolen goods, steam engines and locomotives, sewing machines, wooden ware of all descriptions, agricultural implements, etc.; in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, sawn lumber, ships, cotton and woolen goods; boots and shoes, furniture, leather, nails, machinery, gunpowder, paper, steam engines, locomotives, etc. The manufactures of Prince Edward Island are chiefly for domestic purposes. In British Columbia, the manufactures are very few in number, but water power is everywhere abundant. The latter remark applies generally to the whole Dominion.

Internal Improvements. - The canals of Canada are among its most important public works. The most easterly is St. Peters canal leading into the Bras d'Or, Cape Breton; distance 2,300 feet. Next the Shubenacadie canal connecting Halifax with the Bay of Fundy. The St. Lawrence navigation is 2,385 miles long, and eight canals, one of which is American (the Sault Ste. Marie), have been built to make it practicable for all its length. The Ottawa and Rideau canals complete a second (interior) line of communication from Montreal to Kingston; their united length is 143? miles. The St. Ours lock and the Chambly canal connect the St. Lawrence and the Hudson, via the Richelieu River and Lake Champlain. Distance from Montreal to New York 456 miles. The following canals are projected: Bay Verte, Caughnawaga, Ottawa and Georgian Bay, Toronto and Georgian Bay, Trenton and Georgian Bay, and Hamilton and Lake Huron.

The Railway System of Canada is fast assuming extensive proportions. The first railway was begun in 1835. It was a line 16 miles in length, from Laprairie on the St. Lawrence to St. Johns. The road was opened with horses in 1836, and first worked with locomotives in 1837. The first railway in Ontario, between Queenstown and Chippewa, was opened with horses in 1839. Up to the close of 1872 there had been constructed in the Dominion 3,454 miles of railway, and in 1873, 1,576 additional miles we're opened, making a total of 5,030 miles of railway in operation, under 32 corporations. The following are the railways of the Dominion:

Railways. miles

Brockville and Ottawa, main line 87 Montreal and Vermont Junction 26
Brockville and Ottawa branch 12 Montreal, Chambly Sorel. 35
Canada Central 28 New Brunswick and Canada, main line 94
Canada Southern, main line 229 New Brunswick and Canada, branches 27
Canada Southern branches 93 Northern, main line 115
Carillon and Grenville 12 Northern, branch 237
E. and N.A. Peterboro' and Marmora 25 Prince Edward Island, main line 147
E. and N A Consolidated 91 Prince Edward Island, branches 53
Fredericton Branch 22 Quebec and Gosford 27
Glasgow and Cape Breton 21 Rivière du Loup 20
Grand Trunk, main line 797 South Eastern 65
Grand Trunk, branches 573 Stanstead, Shefford and Chambly 42
Great Western, main line 229 St. Lawrence and Ottawa   54
Great Western, branches 264 St. Lawrence and Industry 12
Hamilton and Lake Brie 31 Toronto, Grey and Bruce, main line 143
Intercolonial, main line 562 Toronto, Grey and Bruce, branch 71
Intercolonial, branches 152 Toronto and Nipissing 88
Kingston and Pembroke 18 Welland 25
London and Port Stanley 25 Wellington, Grey and Bruce, main line. 129
Massawippi Valley 34 Wellington, Grey and Bruce, south, ext. 66
Midland, main line 87 Whitby and Port Perry 19
Midland, branch 22 Windsor and Annapolis 116
    Total                                                        5,030  

Besides the above, charters have been granted, since Confederation, to over fifty new railway companies, the most important of which are the Canada Pacific, length 2,500 miles; Kingston and Pembroke, 140 miles; Northern Colonization, 142 miles; North Shore, 192 miles; Sault Ste. Marie and Bracebridge, 280 miles; Ontario and Quebec:
Rivière du Loup, miles; Montreal and Ottawa Junction 81 miles; London, Huron and Bruce, 105 miles; Levis & Kennebec, 82 miles; St. Francis and Lake Megantic, 65 miles; Richelieu and Drummoudville, 60 miles; Ottawa and Gatineau, 120 miles; and Brantford and Port Burwell, 45 miles.

Telegraphs. - There were six telegraph companies in the Dominion in 1873 - the Montreal, the Dominion, the New York, Newfoundland and London, the New Brunswick, the Nova Scotia, and the Fredericton and St. John. The lines of the three latter are leased and worked by the Western Union Telegraph Company. The Montreal is the leading telegraph company in the Dominion. It was incorporated in 1847, three years after the first line was opened in the United States, and has now 19,000 miles of line, and 1050 offices, including branches. It connects with all parts of the United States and Mari-time Provinces, and with cables to Cuba and Europe, and transmits messages to any of its stations at 25 cents for 10 words, or 15 cents between places not more than 12 miles apart. The Dominion Company extends from the city of Quebec to Sarnia, and the New York, Newfoundland and London company connects with the Atlantic cable at Heart's Content.

Postal Service. - Canada enjoys the great advantage of cheap postage and an excellent system of postal communication. In 1851, the first great step towards cheap postage was taken by the introduction of a uniform postage rate of five cents. But it was not until 1888 that the nearest approach to the British penny post that can be expected was made by the establishment of a uniform rate of three cents. The result has been highly satisfactory and encouraging In Dr. Hodgins' "School History of Canada," (published by Mr. John Lovell, in 180G,) it is stated that "in 1706, when the celebrated Benjamin Franklin was Deputy Postmaster General of British North America, there were only three post offices in Canada, and 180 miles of post route, from Montreal to Quebec. In 1701 there were ten post offices and 600 miles of post route; in 1830 there were 150 post offices and 2,500 miles of post route; in 1840 the number of offices had been increased to 405, and miles of post route to 5,737." Since the year 1840 the progressional growth of the department has continued until, by the report of the Postmaster General for 1S72, we find that there 'were in that year 4,153 post offices, and 33,415 miles of post route, including British Columbia and Manitoba. The estimated number of letters by post in the year 1872 was 30,600,000; gross postal revenue, §1,103,002; postal expenditure, $1,369,163.

Patents. - A new Patent Act was passed by the Dominion Parliament in 1872, which opened to all inventors, whether foreigners or residents of Canada, the privilege of taking out patents in Canada, on condition that the articles patented shall be manufactured in Canada. The opening of the Canadian Patent Office to foreigners has already led to many applications for patents by them; and it is believed that the result will prove to be highly advantageous to the public, and particularly to the manufacturing interests of the Dominion. The Act permits the patent to be issued for periods of five, ten or fifteen years at the option of the inventor. About 7 per cent, of the patents issued are for ten years; about 10 per cent, for fifteen years; and 83 per cent, for five years. The following table exhibits the proceedings of the Patent Office of Canada since Confederation, July 1, 1867:

  1878 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872
Applications for Patents 369 570 781 626 279 752
Patents granted 218 546 580 556 512 670
Caveats     60 132 151 184
Transfers Registered 193 337 470 431 445 327
Designs Registered 5 6 12 24 22 17
Trade Marks Registered 54 32 50 72 106 103
Copyrights   34 62 66 115 87
Timber Marks       197 105 64
Assignments of Trade Marks           11

Fees received in 1867, $8,110; in 1868, $11,052; in 1S69, $14,214.14; in 1870, $14,540.07; in 1871, $14,097; in 1872, $19,578.65.

Fisheries. - The fisheries of the Dominion are the finest in the world; they are almost illimitable, and they are inexhaustible. The great variety and superior quality of the fish are as remarkable as the multitudes in which they are found, and supply a wealth that makes full amends for any rigor of climate or defects of soil on any of the coasts in their vicinity. As respects salmon there is a fishing line on the N. shore of the St. Lawrence of over a thousand miles in length, into which very numerous tributaries flow. On the S. shore, taking in the coasts of the Maritime Provinces, it is of greater length. In British Columbia salmon are very abundant and of excellent quality. The actual value of the produce of the fisheries of the Dominion for the season of 1872, for purposes of trade, was $9,570,110, being an excess over that of the preceding year of $114,803. About 1,500 decked vessels and 17,000 open boats are engaged in the fisheries of the Dominion, employing some 42,000 men. The estimated number of persons supported almost entirely, by this industry, in the various fishing communities, exceeds 200,000 souls. The collections from Fishing Rents, License Fees, Fines, &c, for the fiscal year of 1872, amounted to $10,408, and. the expenditure of tho branch was $43.083. Under the Treaty of Washington, Art. 18, United States citizens have liberty of fishing, except shell fish, in common with British subjects, and of drying their nets and curing their fish on the coasts, &c, of Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, provided hey do not interfere with private property or with British fishermen. This liberty applies solely to the sea fishery, the salmon, shad, and all other fisheries in rivers and mouths of rivers being reserved exclusively for British fishermen. Article 19 of the Treaty gives British subjects the same privileges on the eastern shores of the United States, north of the 39th parallel.

Commerce. - According to the last report of' the Minister of Customs, the gross value of goods imported into the Dominion of Canada, for the fiscal year ending 30th June 1872, was $111,430,527; the goods entered for consumption during the same period $107,709,116; and the value of exports $82,639,663, giving a gross aggregate sum of $194,070,190 as the value of the trade of the Dominion with countries outside its boundaries. This increase in the inward and out-Ward trade, as compared with previous years, is observable under all the various classifications of the Tariff, a certain indication of the commercial progress of Canada. The following figures show the immense increase of the trade of the Dominion since Confederation:

Years Total Trade
1866-67 94,791,860
1867-68 119,797.879
1868-69 130,889,946
1869-70 148,387,829
1870-71 17,206.089
1871-72 194,070,190

The increase alone of the last three years is almost as large as the total trade in 1850 ($29,703,497.) The chief items of exports for toe last fiscal year, 1871-72, exclusive of British Columbia and Manitoba, were:

Produce of the Mine............... $3,936.008
Produce of the Fisheries............ 4,048,508
Produce of the Forest.............. 23,416,382
Animals and their products....... 12,416,613
Agriculture............................... 13,378,562
Manufactures............................. 2,889,435

It thus appears that the product of the forest is the largest item of exports of the Dominion; and it will probably be a growing for many years to conic. The values of the principal articles, the growth, produce and manufacture of the Dominion, exported during the last two years show a general increase:

  1870-71 1871-72
Produce of the Mine $3,221,481 $3,931,608
Produce of the Fisheries 3,931.275 1,348,508
Produce of the Forest 22,352,211 23,035,332
Animals and their products 12,582.925 12,116,613
Agricultural products 9,853,146 13, ??8,562
Manufactures 2,201,331 2,339.435

The value of goods entered for consumption from Great Britain increased from $49,168,170 in 1870-71, to $61,900,702 in 1871-72, and the amount entered for consumption from the United States during the same periods respectively was $29,022,387 (1870-71), and $34,217,969 (1871-72.) The value of Canadian exports to Great Britain increased from $ 14,173,224 in 1870-71, to $25,637,996 in 1871-72; and to the United States from $30,975,642 in 1870-71, to $31,896,816 in 1871-72. The shipping returns exhibit a considerable increase in the tonnage, both British and Foreign, engaged in the carrying trade with countries outside of the Dominion, both by sea and upon its inland waters, the total aggregate tonnage so employed being, for 1869-70, 11,415,870; for 1870-71, 13,126,028; and for 1871-72, 12,546,600, exclusive of British Columbia. The following is an exhibit of the total number and tonnage of vessels built in the Dominion of Canada, and also of those registered in Canada, for each fiscal year since Confederation:




  No Tons No Tons
1868 355 81,230 539 118,692
1869 836 96,339 526 124,408
1870 329 93,166 494 110,752
1871 389 106,191 540 121,721
1872 414 114,035 563 127,371
Totals 1,822 497,001 2,663 599,047

From this it will be seen that the shipbuilding trade has been steadily progressive, the tonnage of 1872 having been more than 27,000 tons greater than the tonnage of 18 i8, and that, with the exception of 1870, each year has shown an increase in the tonnage of vessels built over the year which preceded it. The following table shows the percentage of tonnage contributed by each Province of the vessels built during the five years already referred to:

  1868 1869 1870 1871 1872
Ontario 5 6 5 7 9
Quebec 31 33 21 20 12
Nova Scotia 36 28 26 41 47
New Brunswick 28 33 38 32 32

The percentage of vessels registered in each Province, during the same five years, is as follows:

  1868 1869 1870 1871 1872
Ontario 6 6 6 8 8
Quebec 32 31 23 23 20
Nova Scotia 42 35 40 39 35
New Brunswick 18 28 31 30 35

The tonnage of the four largest maritime powers, in 18G9, was as follows: threat Britain, 5,516,434 tons: United States, 4,318,309 tons; France, 1.042,811 tons: Dominion of Canada, 899,096 tons. The Dominion of Canada is, therefore, the fourth maritime power in the world. But, in proportion to population, she owns more tonnage than any country in the world.

Education. - Canada has no national system of education. In Ontario the school system is a partial adaptation of the best features of the systems of Now York, Massachusetts, Ireland and Ger-many, blended and modified to suit the circumstances of the country, but differing also in several points of importance from all other school systems. Some of the chief points of difference are:

1. Religious instruction is provided.

2. The chief executive is a non-political and permanent officer.

3. It prohibits the use of foreign books in the English branches of instruction, except by special permission, thus preventing heterogenous textbooks and those inimical to our institutions.

4. It provides for the supply of maps, school apparatus, prize and library books, to all the schools, direct from the department, and grants 100 per cent, on local appropriations for such purposes.

5. It provides for the pensioning of superannuated or worn out teachers.

6. It provides for taking and recording meteorological observations at ten selected county grammar schools, results being published periodically.

In 1871 the Legislature of Ontario made all common schools in that province free, to be supported by Provincial grants and local taxes, and made the education of children compulsory on parents and guardians. I The educational institutions of Ontario j comprise 4,598 public schools, 102 j grammar schools, 298 private schools j and academies, 20 colleges and universities, a college of technology, and a provincial model farm, with a school J or college of agriculture. The educational institutions of Quebec, arc divided into Superior, Secondary, Normal, Special, and Primary schools. The first division comprises the universities and schools of theology, law and medicine The second classical colleges, industrial colleges and academies. Under the head Special come the deaf and dumb asylums, the agricultural colleges, and boards of arts and manufactures; and under the head Primary all the elementary and model schools The Protestant minority were in a very unfavorable position, as far as their educational interests were concerned, until 1868, when a very satisfactory act was passed granting them separate schools. In 1871 there were 4,028 schools of all kinds in the Province of Quebec. Education in Nova Scotia is not compulsory but it is free to all classes. There is a Provincial Normal school for the training of teachers, and there are also academies, colleges and common schools. The academies and common schools are under the control of the Government; the colleges are sectarian. There are nearly 1,000 public schools in the province having nearly 103,000 pupils in daily attendance. In New Brunswick, a new School Act was passed in 1871. By it school trustees of each district are bound to provide school accommodation for all persons therein, between the ages of 5 and 20, free of charge. In addition to the provincial grant, a tax is levied in each county equal to 30 cents per head, and a local fund sufficient for the purpose of carrying out the law (including a poll-tax of $1 per head) is raised by the localities. Serious objection has been raised to this act by the Roman Catholic population, who desire to use their own taxes for schools under their own management, and not subject to the government inspection, examination of teachers, regulations respecting text books, &c. The educational institutions supported by law are a Provincial

University, a Training or Normal school for teachers, and a system of common schools ranging from t he primary to the grammar or high school department. The common schools are non-sectarian and free to all. The schools of Prince Edward Island are free to all. Excellent school systems have been provided for Manitoba and British Columbia. Religious instruction forms part of the common school system of each section of the Dominion

Religious Denominations. - There is no State Religion in the Dominion of Canada, all denominations being regarded equally by the Government. The clergy depend for subsistence upon the voluntary contributions of their congregations or upon funds appropriated for this purpose. The principal sects are the Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists and Congregationalists. There are 15 Church of England dioceses in Canada, viz: the Metropolitical diocese of Montreal, and the dioceses of Nova Scotia, Fredericton, Quebec, Ontario, Toronto, Western Toronto, Huron, Algoma, Rupert's Lund, British Columbia, and four recently formed in the North West Territories. There are 19 Roman Catholic dioceses, viz: the archdioceses of Halifax, Quebec, Toronto and St. Boniface. (Manitoba), and the dioceses of Montreal, Rimouski, Three Rivers, Sherbrooke, St. Hyacinthe, Ottawa, Kingston, Hamilton, London, Arichat, St John, (NB,) Chatham, (NB,) Charlottetown (P.E.I ,) Satala, (Red River,) and Anemour, (Mackenzie River ) The following table, taken from the census of 1871, shows the various religions denominations and the number of their communicants in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick :

Church of England 494019
Church of Home 1,492.029
Church of Scotland 107,259
Presbyterians 437.430
Baptists 239,343
Wesleyan Methodists 378,543
Episcopal Methodists 93,958
New Connexion Methodists 32,436
Congregationalists 21,829
Bible Christians 18,744
Unitarians 2,275
Other Denominations 141,122
Jews 1,115
Without Creed &c 22,620
Total 3,485,716

Public Works. - The public works of the. Dominion consist of a canal and railway system, together with certain public buildings. The canal system was devised to overcome the impediments to navigation found in the St. Lawrence, and connect with the Great Lakes and Great West. The canals of the Dominion are as follows;

Name Miles
St. Peters ½
Chambly 12
St. Ours
Lachine 8½
Beauharnois 11¼
Cornwall 11½
Wiliamsburg 12
Wetland 27¼
Burlington Bay ½
Rideau 126¼
Ottawa Canals 7

The Dominion Government works 712 miles of railway in the provinces of Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and 200 miles in Prince Edward island, and has contracted for the construction of a railway from Lake Nipissing to the Pacific, through British territory; length 2,500 miles. The public buildings maintained by the Dominion are the House of Parliament and Governor's residence at Ottawa; and all custom houses, post offices, drill sheds, barracks, &c., also geological museum, observatories, and all lighthouses in the Dominion. It also maintains harbors of refuge, public roads and slides and booms. It has 3 sea going and 2 river steamers and 6 marine police schooners, employed in protecting the fisheries.

Divisions.-The Dominion of Canada is composed of seven Provinces and the North West Territories. The area of the several provinces with their population in 1861 and 1871 is shown in the following table:




Province Sq. miles 1861 1871
Ontario 107,780 1,396,091 1,620,851
Quebec 193,355 1,111,566 1,191,516
Nova Scotia 21,731 339,857  387,800
New Brunswick 27,322 252,047 285,594
British Columbia 213,500 34,816 50,000
P.E. Island 2,134 80,861 94,021
Manitoba 14,340   11,953
N.W. Territories 2,750,000   28,700
  3,339,162 3,206,228 3,650,485

Cities.-The following are the cities of the Dominion of Canada, and their population in 1871;

Montreal 117.225
Quebec 59,699
Toronto 58,092
Halifax 29,582
St. John 28,805
Hamilton 26,716
Ottawa 21,545
London 15,826
Kingston 12,407
Throe Rivers.. 7,570
Charlottetown 7,500
Fredericton 6,006
Victoria. 4,540
St. Hyacinthe 3,746
Winnipeg 3,000

Immigration.-The number of immigrants who have arrived and settled in Canada is much less than the number who have hitherto gone to the United States ; but the probability is that within the next fifty years the balance will be redressed, from the fact that the United States have already disposed of their large tracts of fertile lands, while Canada is opening up immense and fertile territories for the settler. The really cultivable area of the United States is confined within much smaller limits than is generally supposed, from the fact that immense and wide deserts are found in place of cultivable territory, with comparatively very little exception, over all the region west of the 100th degree of west longitude, to the base of the Rocky Mountains. Canada, on the other hand, has yet an immense extent of fertile territory unsettled, which can absorb many millions of settlers, As regards the land system of the Dominion it may be stated that in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and British Columbia, with the exception of a tract in the last named Province ceded to the Dominion for the purpose of the Pacific railway, the lands are held by the several Provincial governments. In several of the provinces free grants are given to immigrants, and in almost all cases in which government land is for sale, it is offered at prices which are merely nominal. The lands in the province of Manitoba and the North West Territories are held by the Dominion Government, which at present gives free grants of 160 acres in Manitoba on condition of settlement Dominion lands are also sold for $1 per acre. The total area of lands, the property of the Dominion, exclusive of Labrador and the Islands in the Arctic sea, is computed to be 2,207,725 square miles, or 1,412,304,000 acres. Of this 32,000,000 acres are mostly unfit for cultivation, 76,800,000 acres are prairie lands with occasional groves or belts of timber, 293,384,000 acres are timber lands with occasional prairies, all of it suitable for the growth of wheat and other cereals, 594,048,000 acres suitable for the cultivation of barley, potatoes and the grasses, and with sufficient timber, and 411,072,000 acres rock and swamp, in which the timber growth disappears, and which may be considered as the fur-bearing region. Surveys of the whole of this immense tract are being prosecuted. The number of immigrants who arrived in Canada from 1851 to 1871 was 1,124,844, of whom only 446,688 settled in Canada, the rest going to the United States. The total number of arrivals in 1871 was 65,722, of whom only 27,773 remained in Canada. During the first 9 months of 1872 there arrived 68,958 immigrants, 37,041 of whom settled in this country.

Government.-The system of Government of the Dominion of Canada is monarchical in its most popular form. The Executive consists of a Governor General (who represents the Queen), is Privy Council composed of 13 members, a Senate of 80 members, appointed for life, and a House of Commons of 206 representatives, elected every 5 years. No bill can become law unless sanctioned by the three branches. The Governor General is Commander in Chief of the army and militia, and of the navy in British North American waters; and has the sole pardoning power. The Dominion is divided into 12 military districts. The law requires that every able bodied man be enrolled for its defense. An enrolment takes place each year in February.

Judiciary.-The laws and forms of judicial procedure are not alike throughout the Dominion. The law of Quebec is derived in great part from French sources. At the time of the conquest it consisted, for the most part, of the Coutume de Paris, and the Edicts and Ordinances of the French kings

(Roman) Law was appealed to, as furnishing rules of written reason. In certain matters the Canon Law was also in force. Upon the acquisition of the country by Great Britain, the English Constitutional and Criminal Laws were introduced, the English form of wills allowed, and English rules respecting evidence in commercial cases established. All these laws have from time to time been modified by the Imperial and Canadian Parliaments. The Code Civil de Quebec now supersedes all but the English and Statutory Criminal Law. In 1791, the French Canadian Law was repealed in Ontario (then Upper Canada) and in its place was substituted the laws of England. The common law of England is the law of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and British Columbia. The laws of Manitoba are the same as those of Quebec. The Courts of Justice in Ontario are a Court of Error and Appeal, Court of Queen's Bench, Court of Common Pleas, Court of Chancery, Court of Impeachment, Court of Quarter Sessions, Practice Court, Heir and Devisee Court, County Courts, Division Courts and Recorders' Courts. Those in Quebec are a Court of Queen's Bench, Superior Court, Circuit Court, Court of Vice Admiralty, Court of Quarter Sessions, Court of Special Sessions, and Recorder's Court. Those in New Brunswick are a Supreme Court, Court of Vice Admiralty, Court for the trial and punishment of Piracy, Probate Court, Court of Marriage and Divorce, Inferior Court of Common Pleas and General Sessions of the Peace, and Justice Courts. Those in Nova Scotia are a Supreme Court, Court of Vice Admiralty, Court of Error, Court of Probate, Court of Marriage and Divorce, Court of General Sessions of the Peace, and Justice Courts. Those in Prince Edward Island are a Supreme Court of Chancery, Court of Vice Admiralty, Court of Marriage and Divorce, Court of Probate and Wills, and Insolvent Court. In Manitoba there is a Court of Queen's Bench composed of 1 chief and 2 assistant justices; and in British Columbia a Supreme Court with 1 chief and 2 assistant justices. The Supreme Courts and Courts of Queen's Bench are the highest in the Dominion. An appeal lies from their decisions in certain cases to the Privy Council in England. There are in Ontario 3 chief justices, 1 chancellor, 5 puisné judges, 2 vice chancellors, and 37 county judges; in Quebec, 2 chief justices and 24 puisné judges; in New Brunswick, 1 chief justice, 4 puisné judges, and 5 county judges; in Nova Scotia, 1 chief justice and G puisné judges; and in Prince Edward Island, 1 chief justice and 3 puisné judges.

Salaries.-The Governor General of the Dominion of Canada receives $47,517.55 per annum, and is provided with a residence at the capitol also with secretaries, aides-de-camp, clerks and messengers.. The Lieutenant Governors of Ontario and Quebec receive $10,000 per annum, and those of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba and British Columbia, $8,000 per annum. The chief justices of the Dominion receive $5,000 per annum, and the puisné judges $4,000; Senators and Commoners, $8 a day or $1000 each session; members of the Privy Council, $7,000 per annum, except the premier, who receives $8,000; Adjutant General of Militia, $3,000 per annum.

Revenue.-The revenue of the Dominion is derived from imports on foreign merchandise, excise, public works (Including railways), post offices and bill stamps. The revenue of the Dominion for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1872, was $20,714,813 ; the expenditure for the same period $17,589,458, leaving a surplus of $3,125,345. We subjoin a comparison of the items of Revenue for 3 years:

  1869-70 1870-71 1871-72
Customs $9,335,212 $11,841,101 $12,787,982
Excise 3,619,622 4,295,944 4,735,851
Post Office 573,565 612,630 692,874
Public Works 1,006,844 1,146,240 1,211,729
Bill stamps 134,047 183,319 191,918
Miscellaneous 848,035 1,256,323 1,005,159
Totals 15,512,225 19,335,500 20,714,813

An examination of these figures shows the gratifying fact of progressive increase under every head, with one very trifling exception. The debt of the Dominion on the 1st of July, 1872, was $122,400,179 incurred in the construction of public works, canals, railways, &e. Total assets of the Dominion, $40,213,179 net debt, $92,187,072. There were 33 banks in operation in the Dominion on the 31st July 1873,with a paid up capital of $58,101,959. The amount of notes in circulation was $29,516,016 and discounts, $122,377,754. The deposits of the chartered banks showed an amount of $08,677,737, and the Post Office Savings banks, $3,410,08025. There were of Dominion notes in circulation on the 31st July 1873, $11,062,988.23. The chartered banks have agencies and branches in every important place in the Dominion.

Indians-The Indians in the Dominion of Canada are under the superintendence of the Minister of the Interior, who is the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, and as such has the control and management of the lands and property of Indians. The persons deemed Indians are:

1. All persons of Indian blood, reputed to belong to the particular tribe, band or body of Indians interested in such lands or immovable property, and their descendants.

2. All persons residing among such Indians, whose parents were, or are, or either of them was or is, descended on either side from Indians or an Indian reputed to belong to the particular tribe interested in such lands, and the descendants of all such persons.

3. All women lawfully married to any of the persons included in the above classes, the children, issue of such marriages, and their descendants. None but persons deemed Indians are permitted to settle on Indian lands.

From the statement of population contained in the last official sport (1872) it appears that the Indian tribes of Ontario number 12,886; of Quebec, 8,657; of Nova Scotia, 1,835; of New Brunswick, 1,324; of British Columbia, 28,520: and of the North West Territories, 50,000. The most populous tribes in Ontario are the Six Nation. Indians, who, in 1870, were estimated at 2,888; the Chippewas of Lake Huron, estimated at 1,846; the Chippewas of Lake Superior, estimated at 1,502; add the Manitoulin Island Indians estimated at 1,604. The Iroquois, or Six Nation Indians of Ontario, are chiefly descendants of the Iroquois who adhered to the royal cause dating the American Revolution, and who settled in Upper Canada when the American colonies established their independence. They obtained a large grant of land on the Grand River, in the province of Quebec, the largest bodies are the Nasquapee of the Lower St. Lawrence, numbering 2,860, and the Iroquois of Sault St. Louis, numbering 1850. In New Brunswick, at Indian Village, Indian Point, opposite Fredericton, is located a body numbering about 300. There are also about 400 in Northumberland and 265 in Kent. In Nova Scotia, there are a few in every county. The aboriginal inhabitants of the country lying between Red River and the Rocky Mountains are divided into two great classes, the Prairie Indians and Thickwood Indians, the first comprising the Blackfeet with their kindred tribes of Bloods, Lurcees, and Peagins; as also the Cress of the Saskatchewan and the Assiniboines of the Qu'Appelle; and the last composed of the Rocky Mountain Stonies, the Swampy Cress, and the Saulteaux of the country lying between Manitoba and Fort Ellice. The Prairie Indians live on buffalo, and in large camp and are warlike; the Thickwood Indians live on deer, &c., in small parties, and are peaceable. The Blackfeet occupy the immense tract of country between the Saskatchewan and the frontier, a large portion of which is arid and sandy, being a true extension of the great American desert, which extends from the fertile belt of the Saskatchewan to the borders of Texas. It thus happens that the most active trading relations orate Blackfeet are more easily carried on with the Americans on the Upper Missouri, and the product their tribes, &c., generally finds its way down the waters or the Missouri. In British Columbia Indians are found over the whole province. They are generally quiet, peaceable, and very intelligent with great natural power of observation. A large number of them are instructed by Anglican and Roman Catholic missionaries. There are about fifty schools for Indian children established in the Dominion, principally in tho Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Some of the teachers are paid out of 'he Indian fund; others are supported by various societies. The number of pupils about two thousand. Among the functions of the Indian Department are the distribution of seed and agricultural implements; the erection of school houses; the relief of the aged and infirm and other like acts of charity and assistance.

History.-Canada has its name from the Iroquois word Kanata, signifying a collection of huts, and which the early European discoverers mistook for the name of the country. It was first discovered, in 1497, by Sebastian Cabot, and partly explored by Jacques Cartier between 1535 and 1543; but the first settlement made by Europeans was in 1605, at Port Royal, Acadia, (now Annapolis, Nova Scotia,) by de Monts, a Frenchman. In 1608 a permanent settlement was made by Champlain upon the present site of Quebec, Canada being then called New France. The mode of colonization was semi-religious. Bands of Jesuit and Recollet missionaries penetrated the country in all directions, endeavoring to convert the Indians to the Christian faith. Garrisoned forts were erected at all the prominent points, and the ensuing century was chequered by contests with the Indians, especially the Iroquois, a fierce tribe which continually harassed the French, the latter being aided by the less powerful Hurons. Between 1614 and 1713 Acadia, was several times taken by the British and restored to France, but in the last named year it finally became a British possession, together with Newfoundland. The French then erected strong fortifications at Louisbourg, Cape Breton, but these were also taken by the British. The first Legislature of Nova Scotia met in 1758. In the following year the illustrious Wolfe captured Quebec, and three years later French power in this quarter of the globe ceased. After the taking of Quebec the country was placed under military rule. The French Canadians were guaranteed the free use of their religion, and their clergy remained in the enjoyment of their former rights. The ancient criminal law was, however, superseded by the Criminal Law of England. In 1774 a Legislative Council, composed of 23 members, was appointed to assist the governor. The American Revolution soon after convulsed the continent, and Canada was again the theatre of contending hosts. The American army of invasion advanced without much difficulty over large tracts of the country, but received a check at Quebec, where Montgomery fell in 1775. In 1784 the present limits of New Brunswick were divided from those of Nova Scotia, and erected into a separate Province by a special constitutional charter, the administration of which was confided to Colonel Carleton. The first Legislature of New Brunswick met in 1785. In 1791 Quebec was divided into two provinces, and representative government introduced, an event which, though far from satisfying the French Canadian party, was, nevertheless, a step in that direction. The first Legislature of Lower Canada met in 1791, that of Upper Canada in 1792. In 1812 Canada was again disturbed by the war between Great Britain and the United States, but at its close the colony still remained in close connection with the mother country. In 1822 a project for re-uniting Upper and Lower Canada was started. Attempts were made to render the advisers of the Governors responsible to the popular branch of the Legislature. For some time these efforts were unsuccessful, and the fierceness of the struggle greatly excited the colony. In 1837 the agitation was fanned into open violence, and several engagements ensued between the insurgents and royalists. But the years 1840 and 1841 restored tranquility, the two Canadas being re-united in 1840, by an Imperial Act, under one administration, and responsible government being definitely established in 1841. The Executive consisted of a legislative council, to which the elective principle was applied, a legislative assembly composed of 130 members, 65 from each section of the Province, a cabinet responsible to the legislature, and a Governor General appointed by the Queen. The first united Parliament met at Kingston in June 1841. In 1844, the Government removed to Montreal. In 1840 the Parliament building there were destroyed by a mob. The scat of Government was at once removed to Toronto, and it was arranged to hold the sessions of the legislature for four years alternately in Toronto and Quebec. This system being attended with much inconvenience Parliament resolved on a permanent site, but being unable to agree on one left the selection in the hands of the Queen, who, in 1858, fixed on Ottawa. Party government about this time became well nigh impossible. In the successive. elections which had been held during the preceding years it was found that the hostile majority from either Province in the Legislature had increased rather than diminished. In 1864 the feeling of antagonism came to a crisis, but as the sequel will show it was only the thick darkness which preceded the dawning of ft brighter day, for out of this crisis grew the Dominion of Canada. As a remedy for the existing difficulties the Reform leaders made overtures to Sir John A. Macdonald suggesting the adoption of a federative system. These overtures were cordially received and a Coalition Government was formed pledged to the introduction of such a scheme. By a fortunate coincidence, within a month after the formation of the ministry a Conference was being arranged at Charlottetown for the purpose of discussing the expediency of a union of the Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island under one government one and legislature. The Canadian Government asked permission to send delegates; their request was granted, and on the 18th of September 1864, they met the Maritime delegates. The Conference had met to discuss a Legislative Union, a question with which the Canadian delegates had no authority to deal. The proposal to unite the Maritime Provinces was looked upon as impracticable; but the delegates were unanimously of opinion that a union on a larger basis might be effected. The Canadian delegates proposed a further Conference to consider the possibility of a Federal Union, which was agreed to, and the Conference adjourned to meet again at Quebec on the 10th of October. On the day appointed it met, and after a session of 18 days the scheme of Confederation was placed before the public. This scheme was, after a time, accepted by the Legislatures of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Canada, but not by Newfoundland or Prince Edward Island. Delegates were then sent to England, the Union Act was submitted to the Imperial Parliament, passed that body on the 28th of March 1867, and on the 22nd day of May Her Majesty's proclamation was issued declaring that the Dominion of Canada should come into existence on the 1st of July 1867. By this Act "old" Canada was divided into the two Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. In 1870 the Government of the Dominion was extended over the North West Territories, (out of which the Province of Manitoba was erected,) in 1871 over British Columbia, and in 1873 over Prince Edward Island. The Island of Newfoundland is still out in the cold, but only for a short time. Its destiny is inevitable: it must form part of the Dominion of Canada, "the brightest jewel in the British crown."

Lovell's Gazetteer of British North America, Edited by P.A. Crossby, 1873


Lovell's Gazetteer of British North America

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