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Britain Pond to Bytown, Canada

BRITAIN POND, a hamlet in Kings co., P.E.I., 25 miles from Charlottetown.

BRITANNIA, a post village in Peel Co., Ont., 6 miles from Brampton. Pop. 100.

BRITANNIA, a station on the C. C. R., in Carleton co., Ont., 6 miles from Ottawa. It has a telegraph office.

BRITANNIA MILLS, a post village in Bagot co., Que., on the G. T. R., 42 miles from Montreal. It has a telegraph office. Pop. 90.

BRITONVILLE, a post office in Argenteuil co., Que., 22 miles from Lachute.

BRITISH AMERICA comprises, with the exception of Alaska, the whole of North America, N. of parallel of 49° together with some irregular portions, including New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, stretching south to lat. 43° 30' N., and the triangular portion of which, Quebec and Ontario, form the base, the apex extending S to lat 41° 56 N. This vast territory is bounded E. by the Atlantic, Davis' Strait and Baffin's Bay. N by the Arctic Ocean, N.W. by Alaska, W. by the Pacific and S. by the United States. It comprehends the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, including the Island of Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island. Newfoundland. Manitoba, British Columbia, and the North West Territories. Generally speaking British America is a level country. With the exception of the Rooky Mountains, on the W., it has but few elevations, and these are for the most part of inconsiderable height. The coast has numerous indentations, the most remarkable of which, on the E., are the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson's Bay. The latter, communicating with the Atlantic through Hudson's and Frobisher's Straits, and with the Arctic Ocean by means is of Fox Channel, Gulf of Boothia, Prince Regent's, and other inlets, penetrates to near the centre of the continent, forming one of the most extensive inland seas on the globe. The surface of the country is extremely diversified with rivers and lakes. The St. Lawrence, a river of immense volume, over 2000 miles in length, forms the outlet of the great Canadian lakes. The Saskatchewan, rising in the Rocky Mountains, traverses 18° a of lon., or a distance of at least 900 miles, and falls into the great Lake Winnipeg, in 53° N. lat. This lake is connected with Hudson's Bay by the Nelson or Port Nelson River, about 500 miles in length. Lake Athabaska, situated about lat. 53° N., and lon. 110° W. receives, among others, the Peace River and the Athabaska, a large stream, rising in the Rocky Mountains, near the source of the Columbia. The Mackenzie, entering the Arctic Ocean, is one of the largest rivers on the globe. It flows through about 16° of lat. E. of the Mackenzie, and flowing into the Arctic Ocean, are the Coppermine and Fish rivers. The basin of the Winnipeg may be considered as a continuation of that of the St. Lawrence, or as a portion of one high plateau divided into two parts. There can be but little doubt that a very great, if not the greater part of the vast region included under the name of British America, is doomed to everlasting sterility, on account of the severity of the climate. The most northern station in which vegetation has been discovered is Melville Island, 74° 50' N. lat., where the mean annual temperature is from 1 to 2 degrees below zero, and that of July, about 42°. The species that exist here consist chiefly of saxifrages, grasses, cruciform plants, mosses and lichens; not a tree or even a bush is able to rear its head; nor, indeed, is there a single plant or woody structure except a little willow (Salix artica) which rises six inches high. It is in these latitudes that the red snow plant, (Protoccocus nivulis) that most simple of cryptogamic vegetables, exists in all its beauty. As we advance south-ward, vast forests of spruce firs (Abies alba and nigra) among which grow the reindeer moss and other lichens, over-spread the land. To those are added different kinds of wild currants and berries, and a variety of papilionaceous plants, which abound in the open plains. With these are combined, as we continue to advance, the majestic poplars of Canada, (Populus hudsonica, and others), birches, (Betula papyracea and populifolid)) and many sorts of oaks and ashes, together with butternuts (Juglans Cenerea) and hickories (Carya alba and amara.) The animals hunted for food are deer, of four different kinds, buffaloes, rabbits, and porcupines. Wild fowl are also numerous, especially grouse, wild geese and ducks. The principal objects of traffic, especially in the most northern parts, are the skins of fur-clad animals, of which there are here a great variety. The chief tribes inhabiting the Northern regions are the Chippewas, the Assiniboins, the Crees, the Slave Indians, and the Esquimaux. Of all these tribes the Crees have the best character, being active, honest and hospitable, kind to their women, aid fondly attached to their children. For an account of that portion of British America under cultivation see Canada, Dominion OF.

BRITISH COLUMBIA, formerly NEW CALEDONIA, a province of the Dominion of Canada, bounded on the N. by the 60th parallel of latitude; E. by the main chain of the Rocky Mountains; S. by the United States; and W. by Alaska, the Pacific Ocean and Queen Charlotte's Sound. Length 764 miles; breadth about 400 miles. Area 350,000 square miles. The coast line is deeply indented. The northern part of the colony is diversified with mountain, lake and river; is of extraordinary fertility, producing alt Canadian cereals and vegetables, and fruits in larger measure than any part of even Ontario, and with a mining region (Omineca) at the head waters of the Peace, Skeena, and Fraser Rivers, which, though very imperfectly explored, (owing to their inaccessibility to general travel) gives indications of being very rich in gold and silver. The southern and middle part includes the rich gold valley of Fraser River, and is well adapted for pasturage, and also, with irrigation, for agriculture; some parts, however, such as the Chilcotin plains, and the great and beautiful valley of the Okanagon, require no artificial irrigation, nor does any part of the seaboard. Throughout the whole extent of the province there is an abundance of forest land, the timber on which is of the most valuable description. One kind especially, the Douglas pine yields spars from 90 to 100 feet in length, and from 20 to 24 inches in diameter. The tree is very often from 150 to 300 feet in length, without knots or branches, and the diameter varies from six to ten feet, and in quality is about twice as strong as Canadian red pine, and being more gummy, is more durable and takes a better hold. At Burrard Inlet, 9 miles from New Westminster, there are pine trees 27 to 30 feet in diameter. The yearly exports of timber amount to about $250,000, but the vast forests have hardly been touched.

The mineral resources of British Columbia are very great. Gold is found all along the Fraser and Thompson Rivers, and in great abundance in the Cariboo district, the yield in that one locality exceeding, in 1870, one million dollars, while the yield of the entire province for the past ten year3 has exceeded twenty-two million dollars. Silver and copper are also to be had in abundance, but the mines have not as yet been very largely worked. The true wealth of the province, however, is its coal fields, which are inexhaustible, easy of access and easily worked. Bituminous coal is found on the mainland and on Vancouver Island; and anthracite coal on Queen Chariot to Island. The latter has been sold in San Francisco for $20 per ton. The fisheries, which will some day provide a source of national wealth, are amongst the most valuable known. The climate of British Columbia is mild and favorable enough to allow animals to live in the open air throughout the winter, and in many parts the plains and hills are covered with a herb called bunch grass, which possesses highly nutritious qualities and keeps cattle in excellent condition during the whole winter. Winter lasts from November till March; but snow seldom remains long on the ground. The prevailing winds are from the N. in summer, and from the S. and W. in winter.

The area of the land fit for agricultural settlement is estimated at 250,000 square miles, diversified by hill and dale, and watered by numerous streams and lakes. The soil varies from a deep black vegetable loam to a light brown, loamy earth; the hills supplying slate and building stone. Wheat, barley, potatoes, turnips, apples, pears, & grow luxuriantly.

The country is rich in fur-bearing animals, of which the principal are the black, brown and grizzly bears, lynx, marten and beaver. The annual product of the fur trade amounts to between $200,000 and $250,000.

Shipbuilding is a branch of trade which promises to assume large proportions.

Manufactures are yet in their infancy.

Chief among the rivers of the country is the great Fraser River, which pursues a rapid course between steep and rocky banks, until, approaching the sea, it presents a fertile and finely wooded valley from 50 to 60 miles in length. The total length of the Fraser River is about 700 miles. The Thompson River surpasses the Fraser in the richness of its scenery, and flows through one of the most beautiful countries in the world. The Columbia is another noble stream. It enters the United States at Fort Shepherd, after a course of nearly 800 miles in British territory. Total length about 1,200 miles.

The means of communication with the interior of British Columbia are very good. Steamers ascend the Fraser River over 100 miles, to the head of navigation, and for over 450 miles beyond this there is an excellent graveled road, constructed by the government at great expense. Burrard Inlet is the largest and finest harbor on the mainland, and is spoken of as a probable terminus for the Pacific railway.

British Columbia consists of two perfectly distinct parts; the mainland above described and Vancouver Island. This island is the largest in the Pacific, being 278 miles long, and 40 to 50 wide. It is separated from the mainland by the Straits of Fuca, which are about 16 miles in width, and by the Gulf of Georgia, which varies from 30 miles in width to a narrowness that is bridgeable, viz: at Valde's Island. The surface is marked by mountain ranges and extensive plains. The soil is productive. The island is noted for its coal mines. Gold has also been found. The harbors are numerous and excellent, and Esquimalt Harbor, which is the Naval station, is also referred to as not unlikely to prove the terminus of the Canada Pacific railway.

The public affairs of British Columbia are administered by a Lieutenant Governor, an Executive Council of five members, and a Legislative Assembly composed of 25 representatives elected every four years. Justice is dispensed by a Chief justice and two assistants.

Education is free to all; the schools are non-sectarian.

Victoria, Vancouver Island, is the capital of the province, and the seat of the see of the Lord Bishop of British Columbia. It is situated on a narrow inlet, which, completely landlocked, gives accommodation to all vessels whose draught of water does not exceed 18 feet It is rapidly rising into a large city.

The number of arrivals in 1872 was 292 (tons 131,696,) and the clearances 285 (tons 129.864.) Total value of imports $1,790,352; exports $1,712,107.

Mails from Canada to British Columbia and vice versa are conveyed between San Francisco and Victoria by the steamer Prince Alfred, an iron steamship of 900 tons The service is performed twice a month. Some mails are also conveyed by land to Portland or Olympia and thence reach Victoria by another steamer. The Vancouver Island postal service is performed from Victoria by the steamer Sir James Douglas, which conveys the mails along the eastern coast as far as Comox, 130 miles from Victoria, stopping at Cowichan, Maple Bay, Chemainus, Nanaimo and Comox Cowichan is a flourishing place. It possesses good schools, the only, stone church in the Province, and a convent at which the Nuns (who are Canadians) teach trades to Indian and half-breed girls. Nanaimo is also a flourishing town, with bright prospects for the future. There are hardly any settlements on the western coast, and there is in consequence no postal service. The service to Comox is efficient and regular, and is performed with every possible regard to economy. The mails for the mainland are des-patched from Victoria. Some, of but little importance, ate conveyed by the Sir James Douglas, as far as Nanaimo, where the steamer Otter, belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, receives the mails for the" River Skeena. The other mails, which are by far the most important, are conveyed from Victoria to New Westminster, thence to Yale, and from Yale to Barkerville. The service from Victoria to New Westminster is performed by the steamer Enterprise, belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company. From New Westminster to Yale, on the Fraser, the mails are conveyed, in summer, by the steamer Lillouet. From Yale to Barkerville, the service is performed by means of stages drawn by four or six horses. Upon the Cariboo route, between Soda Creek and the mouth of the Quesnel, the Fraser is navigable, and the Victoria makes the trip promptly and safely, and affords to travellers every comfort that can be desired. A steamboat has recently been placed on Lake Tatla, to provide miners with facilities for reaching the mines of the District of Ominica more speedily, more safely, and with less fatigue.

Telegraph lines extend from Swinomish, in Washington Territory, (United States) to Barkerville, at the extremity of the Cariboo road. There is, besides, a branch line from Matsqui to Burrard Inlet via New Westminster, in addition to a right of way over the line belonging to the Western Union Telegraph Company, from Swinomish to Victoria, which comprises two sub-marine cables. This line of telegraph, which by the act completing the union of Columbia with Canada, became the property of the Dominion, is 569 miles long, in addition to the submarine portion which is a mile and a quarter in length. The following is a list of the telegraph stations and tariff for 10 words from Victoria:

Schome SO 50 I Lytton 1 00
Matsqui 50 | Spence's Bridge 1 20
N. Westminster 75 i Clinton 1 20
Burrard Inlet. 75
Chilukwoyuk. .. 75
Hope 75
Yiile 1 OJ
83-Mile House.. 1 25
Soda Creek 1 55
Quesnel 1 55
liarkerville 2 00

British Columbia is divided into 5 electoral districts for Dominion elections, viz., New Westminster, Cariboo, Yale, Victoria, and Vancouver, each of which, except Victoria, returns 1 member to the House of Commons; Victoria returns 2 members. It is further subdivided into 12 electoral districts for Provincial purposes.

British Columbia occupies a commanding position not only with regard to the trade of the western part of America and the Pacific Islands, but also with respect to China, Japan, and other Asiatic countries, and the Australian colonies. Along the whole coast line of at least 10,000 miles, (following indents,) a perfect labyrinth of islands exists, giving innumerable harbors, inlets and channels, teeming, as well as the rivers that empty into (hem, with salmon, sturgeon, mackerel, and, herring, halibut, oulachans and whales. Except the whale fishery, these vast fisheries are altogether undeveloped.

This colony was first established in 1858, and has since made remarkable progress. The total population last year was 10,586, exclusive of Indians. This total comprised 8,576 whites, 462 Negroes and 1,548 Chinese. The number of Indians is large, supposed to be about 50,000. Some tribes have gathered together in villages, and considerable progress has been made in the education of their children. The construction of the Canada Pacific railway cannot fail to develope the untold resources of this province, and add greatly to the wealth and general prosperity of the Dominion. The distance from Montreal to Victoria is 3,000 miles, which can now be accomplished in 11 or 12 days, by the San Francisco route; but by the future Canada Pacific railway, the distance will be reduced to 2,800 miles.

We are indebted to M. McLeod, Esq., district magistrate, Aylmer, P. Q. (son of the late Chief Trader John McLeod, sen., of the Hudson's Bay Company, and author of "Peace River," &c.,) for the following information, as to the fertility of Northern British Columbia:

"At Fort St. James, about lat 54° 30' N., 2,000 feet above the sea, the first barley (five quarts) sown produced five bushels, say about 84 bushels per acre. This was about 50 miles west of McLeod's Fort, which last is the highest Post on the Rocky Mountains.

"At Fort Fraser, still further west, on the slope of the Cascade, the first potatoes planted, about a bushel, produced forty-fold."

Mr. McLeod estimates the total area of British Columbia at 350,000 square miles, and the wheat area at 150,000 square miles, or 90,000,000 acres, being all south of lat. 55° N., (although there are fine wheat valleys far beyond, N.) islands included. The grass, barley and vegetable area north of the above -that is, from lat. 55° to 60° N., (northern boundary line of British Columbia) and from lon. 120° W. to American boundary, 141° W., Mr. McLeod estimates at 100,000 square miles, or, 64,000,000 acres. A considerable portion, say one-sixth, of these areas, is covered with lakes, numerous and, like all the rivers, abounding with wholesome fish - fish, in fact, is the native staple food.

Mr. McLeod further estimates the coast line of British Columbia at 10,000 miles, a predicate on that of Norway: the latter, on actual measurement, having been found to have in its indented line thirteen times the length of its coast in a straight line. In point of fact, the British Columbia coast is much more, and more deeply indented than that of Norway, some of the inlets running in upwards of fifty miles. The inlets are full of salmon and other fish.

BRITISH HARBOR, a fishing settlement on the north shore of Trinity Bay, Nfld., 26 miles from Hearts Content. Pop. 100.

BROAD COVE (Bay De Verds), a fishing settlement on the north shore of Conception Bay, Nfld., 15 miles from Carbonear. Pop. 570.

BROAD COVE (Bonavista), a fishing settlement in the district of Bonavista, Nfld., 26 miles from Trinity. Pop. 273.

BROAD COVE (Harbor Main), a fishing settlement at the head of Conception Bay, Nfld., 37 miles from St. Join's. Pop. 90.

BROAD COVE (Intervale) a post village in Inverness co., NS., 10 miles from Mabou. It contains several stores. Pop. 250.

BROAD COVE (Marsh), a post village in Inverness CO., N.S, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 20 miles from Mabou. It contains several stores and mills. Pop. 150

BROAD COVE (St. John's), a fishing settlement in the district of St. John's, Nfld., 10½ miles from St. John's. Pop. 305.

BROAD cove (Trinity), a small fishing settlement in the district of Trinity, Nfld. Pop 21.

BROAD COVE, a village in Digby co., N.S., situated on Digby Neck, near St. Marys Bay, 6 miles from Digby. It contains 2 stores. Pop. 200.

BROAD COVE, or CHERRY HILL, a post village in Lunenburg co., N.S., on the sea coast, 24 miles from Bridgewater. Pop. 300.

BROAD COVE CHAPEL, a post settlement in Inverness co., N.S., on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 36 miles from Mabou. Pop. 150.

BROAD CREEK, Monck co., Ont. See Port Maitland.

BROADHAGEN, or BRODHAGEN, a pest village in Perth co., Ont., 5 miles from Carronbrook. It has a sawmill, flax mill, rope factory, soap and candle factory, and a printing office issuing a weekly newspaper. Pop. 200.

BROADLANDS, a post village in Bonaventure co., Que., 5 miles from Campballton, N.B. Pop. 50.

BROAD RIVER, a small village in Queens co., N.S., 8 miles from Liverpool. Pop. 130.

BROADVILLE, Hastings co., Ont See Rutledgeville.

BROCK, a post office in Ontario co., Ont., 10 miles from Cannington.

BROCKAWAY, York co., N.B. See Magaguadavic.

BROCKTON, or LIPPIXCOTT, a post village in York co., Ont., 3 miles from Toronto. It has a rope factory and several stores. Pop. 250.

BROCKVILLE, an electoral district in the S. E. part of Ontario, comprises the town of Brockville and township of Elizabethtown, having the St. Law-rence for its S. boundary. Area 75,200 acres. It is traversed from E. to W. by the Grand Trunk railway, and from S. to X. by the Brockville and Ottawa railway. Pop. 10,475.

BROCKVILLE, the chief town of the united counties of Leeds and Grenville, Ontario, is situated at the foot of the Lake of a Thousand Islands, on the Left bank of the St. Lawrence, 125 miles S.W. of Montreal. It is a port of entry, an important station on the G. T. R., the southern terminus and head office of the B. & O. R., and a port of calling of all steamers plying on the St. Lawrence. The streets of the town are well laid out, lighted with gas, and adorned with numerous handsome buildings, Here are agencies of the Bank of Montreal and Molson's Bank, two telegraph and several fire and life assurance companies. The town contains a large number of stores, a foundry and machine shop, for the production of steam engines and machinery of every description, a large stove foundry, a manufactory of hardware and labor-saving machines, a white lead factory, buck and kidd mitt factory, sash and blind factory, several tanneries, flouring mills, saw mills, &c. There is also a manufactory of sulphuric acid and superphosphate of lime, the materials for which are found in the vicinity of the town. Two weekly newspapers are published in Brockville. Total value of imports for 1872, $555,400; exports $665,206. Pop. 5,102.

BROCKVILLE, a small settlement in Albert co., N.B., 7 miles from Hopewell Corner. Pop. 75.

BRODHAGEN, Perth co., Ont. See Broadhagen.

BROME, a county of Quebec, bounded on the E. by Lake Memphremagog, and on the S. by the State of Vermont. Area 300,455 acres. This county is drained by a number of streams, and traversed by the South Eastern railway. Capital, Knowlton. Pop. 13,757.

BROME or BROME CORNER, a post village in Brome co., Que., on a branch of the Yamaska River, 4 miles from Sutton. It contains a telegraph office, 2 saw mills, a planing mill, and 2 churches. Pop. 250.

BROMEMERE, a post village in Brome co., Que., 5 miles from Waterloo. Pop. 150.

BROME MOUNTAIN, a bold elevation of about 1,000 feet near West Shefford, Brome co., Que.

BROME WOODS. Brome co., Que. See Iron Hill.

BROMPTON, a post office in Richmond co., Que., 4 miles from Brompton Falls.

BROMPTON FALLS, or ST. FRANCIS MILLS, a thriving post village in Richmond co., Que., on the River St. Francis, with a station on the G. T. R., 6 miles from Sherbrooke. It has a telegraph office, several saw mills, a paper mill, and an extensive lumber trade. Pop. 500.

BRONTE, a thriving post village in Halton co., Ont., at the entrance of Twelve Mile Creek in Lake Ontario, with a station on the G. W. R., 20 miles S.W. of Toronto. It contains a telegraph office, printing office, and several stores and hotels. Pop. 550.

BROOKBURY, a post village in Compton co., Que., 26 miles from Lennoxville. Pop. 100.

BROOKE, a hamlet in Lambton co., Ont. It has 1 store.

BROOKFIELD, a post village in Colchester co., N.S., on the I. R., 53 miles from Halifax. It contains a telegraph office, 3 stores, 2 hotels, and a tannery. There are deposits of iron ore in the vicinity. Pop. 150.

BROOKFIELD, a post village and district in Queen's co., N.S., 27 miles from Liverpool. Pop. of district 660.

BROOKLAND, a small settlement in Pictou co., N.S., 8 miles from West River. Pop. 150.

BROOKLIN, a thriving post village in Ontario co., Ont., on the W. & P. P. R., G miles from Whitby. It contains 4 large flouring mills, a tannery, an iron foundry, several furniture factories, a telegraph office, &c. Pop. 650.

BROOKLYN, a small village in Annapolis co., N.S., 2 miles from Middleton. Pop. 150.

BROOKLYN, a village in Yarmouth co., N.S., 2 miles from Yarmouth. Pop. 250.

BROOKLYN, Hants co., N.S. See Newport.

BROOKLYN, or HERRING COVE, a post village in Queens co., N.S., on the eastern side of Liverpool harbor, 2½ miles from Liverpool. It contains 2 stores, 1 saw mill, and several shipyards. Pop. 300.

BROOKLYN, or MUSGRAVE HARBOR, a village on the west side of Bonavista Bay, Nfld., 10 miles from Indian Arm. It has a good harbor. Pop. 203.

BROOKLYN STREET, a settlement in Kings co., N.S., 5 miles from Coldbrook. There are a number of small lakes in the vicinity. Pop. 80.

BROOKSDALE, a post village in Oxford co., Ont., 11 miles from Beachville. Pop. 60.

BROOKVALE, a post settlement in Queens co., N.B., 20 miles from Apohaqui. Pop. 100.

BROOKVALE, or HIGGINS SETTLEMENT, a post office in Halifax co., N.S., 20 miles from Shubenacadie.

BROOK VILLAGE, Inverness co., N.S. See Shea's River.

BROOKVILLE, a post settlement in Pictou co., N.S., 8 miles from New Glasgow. Pop. 120.

BROOKVILLE, a post village in Cumberland co., N.S., on Minas Basin, 15 miles from Parrsborough. Pop. 100.

BROOKVILLE, a settlement in Yarmouth co., N.S., 16 miles from Yarmouth.

BROOKVILLE, Compton co., Que. See Richby.

BROOKVILLE, Digby co., N.S. See Beaver River.

BROOKVILLE, Halton co., Ont. See Nassagaweya.

BROSSEAU'S, a station on the G. T. R. (Champlain division), in Laprairie co., Que., 12 miles from Montreal.

BROUGHAM, or BENTLEY'S CORNERS, a post village in Ontario co., Ont., 12 miles from Whitby. Pop. 300

BROUGHTON, or ST. PIERRE DE BROUGHTON, a post village in Beance co., Que., 54 miles from Quebec. Pop. 200.

BROWN'S BROOK, a post office in Cumberland co., N.S.

BROWNSBURG, a post village in Argenteuil co., Que., on a tributary of the North River, 4 miles from Lachute. It contains 2 saw mils and a carding and cloth factory. Pop. 60.

BROWNS CORNERS, Ontario co., Ont. See Audley.

BROWN'S CORNERS, Simcoe co., Ont. See Rosemont.

BROWN'S CORNERS, York co., Ont. See Buttonville.

BROWN'S CREEK, a hamlet in Queens co., P.E.I. It contain.; a store.

BROWNSVILLE, a post village in Oxford co., Ont., 13 miles from Ingersoll. Pop. 100.

IWNSVILLE, York co., Ont. See Schomberg.

BRUCE, a county in the N.W. part of Ontario, bordering on Lake Huron, has an area of 1,048,156 acres. It is drained by the Saugeen River and traversed by two railways, the Toronto, Grey and Bruce, and Wellington, Grey and Bruce. Pop. 48,515.

BRUCEFIELD, a post village in Huron co., Ont., 6 miles from Seaforth. It has a telegraph office, 2 hotels, and 3 stores. Pop. 250.

BRUCE MINKS, a post village in the district of Algoma, situated on the N. shore of Lake Huron, opposite the east end of the Island of St. Joseph, on the location of the Bruce, Wellington and Huron Copper Bay mines, 337 miles from Collingwood, and 45 miles S.E. of Sault Ste. Marie. It contains 3 churches and 5 stores. The copper mines, which are very extensive, are worked by Messrs. John Taylor & Sons, of London, England. Steamers from Collingwood and Sarnia touch at this place en route for Thunder Bay, Fort William and Duluth. Pop. 1,298.

BRUDENELL, a post village in Renfrew co., Ont., 42 miles from Renfrew. It has a telegraph office and 2 stores. Pop. 60.

BRULE, or BREWLEY, a small fishing settlement on Long Island. Placentia Bay, Nfld., 14 miles from Little Placentia. Pop. 67.

BRULE HARBOR, Colchester co., N.S. See Point Brule.

BRUNET, an island at the entrance of Fortune Bay, Nfld., 4 miles from Harbor Briton. It has a lighthouse exhibiting a revolving white light 408 feet above the level of the sea. Pop. 80.

BRUNNER, a post village in Perch co., Ont., 14 miles from Stratford. Pop. 50.

BRUNSWICK, a post village in Durham, co., Ont., on the M. R., 26 miles from Port Hope.

BRUNSWICK, NEW. See New Brunswick.

BRUSSELS, an incorporated village in Huron co., Ont., on the River Maitland, and on the W. G. & B. R. (South extension), 40 miles from Kincardine. It contains 6 churches (1 Episcopal, 2 Presbyterian and 3 Methodist), 6 hotels, 2 saw mills, 2 gristmills, an iron foundry, a woolen factory, 1 door and sash factory, 1 cheese factory, a planing mill, 2 tin shops and furniture depots, 17 stores (6 general, 2 drug, 6 grocery, 2 clothing and l jewellery), a telegraph office, and a printing office issuing a weekly newspaper. Pop. 1000.

BRYAN'S CROSS, a hamlet in Queens co., P.E.I. It contains a hotel.

BRYANSTON, or GOODWOOD, a post village in Middlesex co., Ont., 12 miles from London. It contains 2 stores and a saw mill, and has a good lumber trade. Pop. 100.

BRYANTS COVE, a fishing settlement on the north side of Conception Bay, Nfld., 9 miles from Harbor Grace. Pop. 263.

BRYSON, formerly HARGRAVE, a post village of Quebec, capital of the co. of Pontiac, on the Ottawa River, at the head of Calumet Falls, 8 miles from Portage du Fort, 60 miles from Ottawa It contains 1 Episcopal and 1 Presbyterian church, a telegraph office, 9 stores, 4 hotels, 1 grist and saw mill, and a printing office issuing a weekly newspaper Pop. 250.

BUCKFIELD, a small settlement in Queens co., N S., 46 miles from Annapolis Pop. 40.

BUCKHORN, a post village in Kent co., Ont. 11 miles from Chatham. Pop. 75

BUCKINGHAM, an incorporated village in Ottawa co., Que , on the Rivière du Lievre, near its outlet into the Ottawa, 18 miles from Ottawa. It has 2 telegraph offices and about 18 stores. A plumbago mine is worked in the Vicinity. Pop 1,301.

BUCKLAND, or NOTRE DAME AUXILIATRICE, a post village in Bellechasse co., Que., 27 miles from St Charles. It contains grist, saw and carding mills, and 3 stores. Pop. 350.

BUCKLAW, a post office in Victoria co., N.S

BUCKLEY'S, or UNION SQUARE, a post settlement n Kings co., N S., 18 miles from Kentville Pop. 100

BUCKSHOT MILLS, a small village in Frontenac co., Ont., 43 miles from Smiths Falls Pop 35.

BUCTOUCHE, a thriving post village in Kent co., N.B., on Buctouche River, 21 miles from Shediac It contains a telegraph office, 8 stores, 2 hotels, a sawmill, and several shipyards. Pop 500

BULL COVE, a fishing settlement on the north side of Conception Bay, Nfld., 2 miles from Brigus Pop 150

BULLOCK'S CORNERS, a village in Wentworth co., Ont., ½ mile from Dundas. It contains grist, flouring, and cotton baiting mills, and a large woolen factory. Pop 150.

BULSTRODE, or ST VALERIE DE BULSTRODE, a post village in Arthabaska co., Que., on Wolfe river, a branch of the Nicolet, with a station on the G T R. (Three Rivers branch), 11 miles from Arthabaska. It has 2 sawmills and a grist mill, and a good trade in lumber and country produce. Pop 120.

BULWER. a post village in Compton co., Que., 9 miles from Lennoxville. Pop 150.

BUNGAY, a hamlet in Queens co., P.E.I. It contains a shoe factory and 1 store.

BURFORD, or CLEARMONT, a post village in Brant co., Ont., 9 miles from Brantford. It contains 3 churches, 5 stores and several mills. Pop. 600.

BURGEO, a small fishing settlement on the west side of Placentia Bay, Nfld., 13 miles from Placentia. Pop. 50.

BURGESSVILLE, a post village in Oxford co., Ont., 11 miles from Woodstock. It contains a woolen factory, and a cheese factory. Pop. 200.

BURGOYNE, or STARK'S CORNERS, a post village in Bruce co , Ont., 23 miles from Walkerton. Pop. 180.

BURGUM'S COVE, a settlement on Random Sound, north arm of Trinity Bay, Nfld. The surrounding scenery is very beautiful. Slate quarries are worked here. Pop. 40.

BURIN, a post town and port of entry, on the west side of Placentia Bay, Nfld., 162 miles from St. John's, It has a fine harbor, with two entrances. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the fisheries. A steamer runs between St. John's and Burin once a fortnight. Pop 1,850.

BURLEIGH, a post village and river port in Peterborough co., Ont., on the Otonabee river, 28 miles from Lakefield. Pop 120

BURLINGTON, a post office in Kings co., N.S., 2 miles from Harborville.

BURLINGTON, a post village in Prince co., P.E.I., 33 miles from Charlottetown. Pop. 150

BURLINGTON, Hants co., N.S. See Kennetcook.

BURNBRA E. a post village in Northumberland co., Out., 28 miles from Belleville. Pop 200.

BURN COVE, a small fishing settlement in the district of Ferryland, Nfld., on the strait shore, 28 miles south of St John's Pop 73

BURNHAMTHORPE, a post village in Peel co., Ont., 7½ miles from Malton. Pop 50.

BURN ISLAND, an island off the west coast of Placentia Bay, Nfld., 5 miles from Paradise. Pop. 53.

BURNLEY, or GRIMSHAWE'S MILLS, a post village on Mill Creek, in Northumberland co., Ont., 14 miles from Colborne. It contains grist, saw-and shingle mills. Pop. 250.

BURNS, a post village in Perth co., Ont., 23 miles from Stratford. Pop. 50.

BURNSIDE, a post office in Marquette co., Man., 9 miles from Portage la Prairie

BURNSTOWN, a post village m Renfrew co., Ont., on the Madawaska River, 15 miles from Arnprior. It contains 1 sawmill and 3 stores. Pop. 100.

BURNT CHURCH, a post settlement in Northumberland co., N.B., on the W side of the Miramichi River, 20 miles from Chatham. Pop. 200.

BURNT COAL, a post settlement in Hints co., N.S., on Minas Basin, 30 miles from Sbubenacadie Pop. 70.

BURNT HEAL), a small fishing settlement on the N side of Conception Bay, Nfld., 2 miles from Brigus. Pop. 77.

BURNT ISLAND, one of a group of islands on the west side of Bonavista Bay, Nfld., 7 miles from Green's Pond. Pop. 130.

BURNT ISLAND, one of a group of islands off the southern coast of Newfoundland, in the district of Burgeo and La Poile, 8 miles from Rose Blanche. Pop. 160

BURNT POINT, a fishing settlement on the N. shore of Conception Lay, Nfld., 24 miles from Carbonear. Pop 101

BURNT RIVER, a post office in Victoria co., Ont.

BURNVILLE, or BLACKLEYS CORNERS, a small village in Oxford co., Ont., 4 miles from Tilsonburg. Pop. 40

BURRARD INLET, a post village of British Columbia, on the Gulf of Georgia, 9 miles from New Westminster. Its harbor is one of the finest on the Pacific coast, and is frequented by a large number of vessels. It is 9 miles in length, easy of access for vessels of any size or class, and deep and safe. Burrard Inlet is the centre of the timber trade of continental Columbia, and the most accessible port from the valley of the Fraser. It is spoken of as the probable Western terminus of the Canada Pacific railway. Pop. 500 exclusive of 700 Indians.

BURR1TTS RAPIDS, a post village in Grenville co., Ont., on the Rideau canal, 10 miles from Kemptville. It has good water power privileges, and contains saw, shingle and grist mills, and 2 telegraph offices Pop. 400.

BURROWSVILLE, a hamlet in Grey co., Ont. It has 1 store

BURTOH, a post village in Brant co., Ont., 5 miles from Brantford. Pop 50

BURTON, a post village in Durham co., Ont., 12 miles from Bethany.

BURTON, a post village and parish in Sunbury co., N.B , on the St John River, 18 miles from Fredericton. Pop. 1,030

BURTON'S POND, a mining settlement on the north side of Green Bay, Nild., 10 miles from Tilt Cove. A copper mho is worked here. Pop. 40.

BURWICK, York co., Ont. See Woodbridge.

BURY, a township in Compton co., Que., 115 miles E. of Montreal. Pop. 1,215.

BURYING PLACE, a fishing settlement on the north side of Notre Dame Lay, Nfld., 7 miles from Tilt Cove This is supposed to have been an Indian burying ground. Pop. 120.

BURY'S GREEN, a post settlement in Victoria co., Ont., 9 miles from Bobcaygeon. Pop. 90.

BUSHFIELD, a post village in Huron co,, Ont., 10 miles from Clinton. It contains a steam saw mill and a store. Pop. 200.

BUTE, a post village in Megantic co., Que., 2 miles from Becancour Station. Pop. 150.

BUTLER'S COVE, a small fishing settlement on Mortier Bay, district of Burn, Nfld., 13 miles from Burin The surrounding scenery is very beautiful. Pop. 70.

BUTTERNUT RIDGE, a post settlement in Kings co., N.B., 12 miles from Petitcodiac Pop. 500.

BUTTER POTS, two remarkable hills in Newfoundland. They are upwards of 1000 feet high, 20 miles apart, and form the extremities of a range of hills.

BUTTONVILLE, or BROWN'S CORNERS, a post village in York co., Ont., 3½ miles from Unionville. Pop. 90.

BUXTON, a post village in Kent co., Ont., 13 miles from Chatham. Pop. L00.

BYNG, or HALDIMAND, a post village in Haldimand co., Ont., situated on Grand River, 1 mile from Dunnville. It contains 2 gristmills and a carding and spinning mill. Pop. 150.

BYNG INLET, a post village in the district of Algoma, Ont , at the mouth of the Maganetawan River on the north shore of Georgian Bay, 90 miles from Collingwood It contains 2 large saw mills, manufacturing about 20,000,000 feet of lumber annually. A steamer from Collingwood calls here every week. Pop 307

BYRON, a post village in Middlesex co., Ont., on the River Thames, 6 miles from London It has good water power privileges and contains two woolen factories. Pop 125.

BYRON'S ISLAND, an island on the E. coast of Labrador, in lat 54° 40 N. lon. 57° 30 W.

BYTOWN, the capital of the Dominion of Canada See Ottawa.

Lovell's Gazetteer of British North America, Edited by P.A. Crossby, 1873


Lovell's Gazetteer of British North America

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